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Camellia japonica
Camellia japonica NBG.jpg
Preservation status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Theaceae
Genus: Camellia
Species: C. japonica
Binomial name
Camellia japonica
L.
Camellia japonica, known as normal camellia,[2] or Japanese camellia, is a types of blossoming plant in the family Theaceae. There are large number of cultivars of C. japonica in development, with many tones and types of blossoms. In the U.S. it is now and again called japonica. In the wild, it is found in central area China (Shandong, east Zhejiang), Taiwan, southern Korea and southwestern Japan.[3] It fills in backwoods, at elevations of around 300-1,100 meters (980-3,600 ft).[4] Camellias are renowned all through East Asia; they are known as tsaa4 faa1 (茶花, lit. “tea bloom”) in Cantonese, cháhuā (茶花) in Mandarin Chinese, tsubaki (椿) in Japanese, dongbaek-kkot (동백꽃) in Korean, and as hoa trà or hoa chè in Vietnamese.

The leaves of this species are wealthy in mitigating terpenoids, for example, lupeol and squalene.[5]

Substance
1 Description
2 Taxonomy
2.1 Camellia japonica var. japonica
2.2 Camellia japonica var. rusticana
3 History
3.1 China
3.2 Australia
3.3 Europe
3.4 United States
4 Cultivars
4.1 AGM cultivars
4.2 Flower structure or style
4.2.1 Single
4.2.2 Semi-twofold
4.2.3 Irregular semi-twofold
4.2.4 Formal twofold
4.2.5 Elegans orm
4.2.6 Informal twofold
5 Cultivation
5.1 Diseases
6 In culture and craftsmanship
7 See moreover
8 References
9 External connections
Portrayal

A bud of a Japanese camellia
Camellia japonica is a blossoming tree or bush, typically 1.5-6 meters (4.9-19.7 ft) tall, however incidentally up to 11 meters (36 ft) tall. A few developed assortments accomplish a size of 72 m2 or more. The most youthful branches are purplish brown, becoming grayish brown as they age. The on the other hand organized rugged leaves are dim green on the top side, paler on the underside, generally 5-11 centimeters (2.0-4.3 in) long by 2.5-6 centimeters (1.0-2.4 in) wide with a tail (petiole) around 5-10 millimeters (0.2-0.4 in) long. The foundation of the leaf is pointed (cuneate), the edges are finely toothed (serrulate) and the tip to some degree pointed.[4]

In the wild, blossoming is among January and March. The blossoms show up along the branches, especially towards the finishes, and have exceptionally short stems. They happen either alone or two by two, and are 6-10 centimeters (2.4-3.9 in) across. There are around nine greenish bracteoles and sepals. Blossoms of the wild species have six or seven rose or white petals, every 3-4.5 centimeters (1.2-1.8 in) long by 1.5-2.5 centimeters (0.6-1.0 in) wide; the deepest petals are joined at the base for up to 33% of their length. (Developed structures regularly have more petals.) The various stamens are 2.5-3.5 centimeters (1.0-1.4 in) long, the external whorl being joined at the base for up to 2.5 centimeters (1.0 in). The three-lobed style is around 3 centimeters (1.2 in) long.[4]

The natural product comprises of a globe-molded case with three compartments (locules), each with a couple of enormous earthy colored seeds with a measurement of 1-2 centimeters (0.4-0.8 in). Fruiting happens in September to October in the wild.[4]

C. japonica leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, for example, the engrailed (Ectropis crepuscularia). The Japanese white eye bird (Zosterops japonica) pollinates Camellia japonica.[6]

Scientific categorization

Ochi-Tsubaki
The variety Camellia was named after a Jesuit minister and botanist named Georg Kamel.[7] The particular sobriquet japonica was given to the species via Carl Linnaeus in 1753 in light of the fact that Engelbert Kaempfer was quick to give a portrayal of the plant while in Japan.[8]

Two assortments are recognized in the Flora of China: C. japonica var. japonica and C. japonica var. rusticana[4][9]

Camellia japonica var. japonica
C. japonica var. japonica is the structure named by Linnaeus, and normally happens in timberlands at elevations of 300-1,100 meters (980-3,610 ft) in Shandong, eastern Zhejiang in central area China and in Taiwan, south Japan, and South Korea. The leaf has a glabrous stem (petiole) around 1 centimeter (0.4 in) long. The bracteoles and sepals are velutinous (smooth). It blossoms among January and March, and organic products in the middle of September and October.[9] It is developed as a nursery plant as numerous cultivars all through the world.

Camellia japonica var. rusticana

C. japonica var. rusticana in the wild, Aizu region, Fukushima pref., Japan
Camellia japonica var. rusticana (Honda) T. L. Ming normally happens in backwoods in Zhejiang (island of Zhoushan Qundao) in central area China[9] and in Honshu, Japan. The leaf has a more limited petiole, around 5 millimeters (0.2 in) long, with fine hairs (pubescent) at the base. The bracteoles and sepals are smooth (glabrous) outwardly. The shade of the blossoms goes from red through rose to pink, blooming in April to May. This assortment is respected by a few plant specialists to be a different animal varieties: Camellia rusticana.[10]

In Japan it is known by the normal name “yuki-tsubaki” (snow camellia) as it normally happens in areas of weighty snowfall at heights going from 1,100 meters (3,500 ft) down to 120 meters (400 ft) on slanting area under deciduous beech trees in the mountain districts toward the north of the principle island of Honshu and confronting the Sea of Japan. In December weighty floats of snow roll in from the north, covering the plants to a profundity of up to 2.4 meters (8 ft). The shrubberies stay covered by snow from December till the finish of March when the snow dissolves in late-winter and the camellias start flowering.[11]

Cultivars of C. japonica var. rusticana include: ‘Nishiki-kirin’, ‘Nishiki-no-mine’, ‘Toyo-no-hikari’ and ‘Otome’.

History
China

A bonsai example of C. japonica
Camellia japonica has showed up in compositions and porcelain in China since the eleventh century. Early compositions of the plant are typically of the single red blooming type. Be that as it may, a solitary white blossoming plant is displayed in the look of the Four Magpies of the Song Dynasty.[8]

Australia

Camellia japonica ‘Aspasia Macarthur’
The primary records of camellias in Australia relate to a transfer to Alexander Macleay of Sydney that showed up in 1826 and were planted in Sydney at Elizabeth Bay House.[12]

In 1838 six C. japonica plants were imported by the botanist, horticulturist and agriculturist William Macarthur. During the years that followed he got a few hundred assortments and developed them at Camden Park Estate.[13] For some years Macarthur’s nursery was one of the primary causes of supply to the settlement in Australia of decorative plants, just as organic product trees and vines.[12]

In 1845, William Macarthur kept in touch with the London nurseryman Conrad Loddiges, recognizing receipt of camellias and referencing: “I have raised four or 500 seedlings of camellia, primarily from seeds delivered by ‘Anemoniflora’. As this assortment never has anthers of its own, I prepared its blooms with dust of C. reticulata and Sp. maliflora.” Although a large portion of Macarthur’s seedling assortments have been lost to development, some are as yet famous today, including ‘Aspasia Macarthur’ (named after him).[12]

A notable camellia nursery in Sydney was “Camellia Grove”, set up in 1852 by Silas Sheather who rented land abutting the Parramatta River on what was initially essential for Elizabeth Farm.[14] Fuller’s Sydney Handbook of 1877 portrays his nursery as having 59 assortments of camellias.[15] Camellia and different blossoms from Sheather’s nursery were sent by steamship downriver to flower specialists at Sydney Markets, tied in bundles and suspended from long bits of wood which were hung up about the decks.[14][16] Silas Sheather fostered various camellia cultivars, the most well known (and still economically developed) were C. japonica ‘Ruler Frederick William’ and C. japonica ‘Harriet Beecher Sheather’, named after his daughter.[15][17] The region nearby Sheather’s nursery was at last made a suburb and named Camellia, to pay tribute to Camellia Grove nursery.[18][19]

By 1883, Shepherd and Company, the main nurserymen in Australia at that point, recorded 160 assortments of Camellia japonica.[13]

Academic administrator Eben Gowrie Waterhouse was a researcher, language specialist, garden planner and camellia master who achieved an overall recovery of interest in the sort in the principal half of the 20th century.[20] The E.G. Waterhouse National Camellia Garden in Sydney, Australia is named after him.[21]

Europe
As per an examination led in 1959, by Dr. Frederick Meyer, of the United States Department of Agriculture, the camellias of Campo Bello (Portugal) are the most established known examples in Europe, which would have been planted around 1550, in other words, these trees are these days roughly 460 years old.[22] However it is said that the camellia was first brought toward the West in 1692 by Engelbert Kaempfer, Chief Surgeon to the Dutch East India Company. He brought subtleties of more than 30 assortments back from Asia.[citation needed] Camellias were brought into Europe during the eighteenth century and had effectively been developed in the Orient for millennia. Robert James of Essex, England, is remembered to have brought back the primary live camellia to England in 1739. On his return from Dejima, Carl Peter Thunberg made a little excursion to London where he made the colleague of Sir Joseph Banks. Thunberg gave to Kew Botanic Gardens four examples of Camellia japonica. One of these was probably given in 1780 to the professional flowerbed of Pillnitz Castle close to Dresden in Germany where it presently gauges 8.9 meters (29 feet) in stature and 11 meters (36 feet) in diameter.[23]

Camellia japonica in the nursery of Pillnitz Castle, Ge

See also[edit]
List of Award of Garden Merit camellias
References[edit]
^ Wheeler, L., Su, M. & Rivers, M.C. (2015). Camellia japonica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T62054114A62054131. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T62054114A62054131.en. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
^ English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 385. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017 – via Korea Forest Service.
^ Botanica. The Illustrated AZ of over 10000 garden plants and how to cultivate them, p 176-177. Könemann, 2004. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
^
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a b c d e Min, Tianlu; Bartholomew, Bruce. “Camellia japonica”. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200014034. Retrieved 2011-11-18. {{cite book}}: Missing or empty |title= (help), in Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H. & Hong, Deyuan, eds. (1994), Flora of China, Beijing; St. Louis: Science Press; Missouri Botanical Garden, retrieved 2011-10-01
^ Majumder, Soumya; Ghosh, Arindam; Bhattacharya, Malay (2020-08-27). “Natural anti-inflammatory terpenoids in Camellia japonica leaf and probable biosynthesis pathways of the metabolome”. Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 44 (1): 141. doi:10.1186/s42269-020-00397-7. ISSN 2522-8307.
^ Roubik, Sakai, and Abang A. Hamid Karim. Pollination ecology and the rain forest. New York: Springer Science + Business Media. 2005. 135. ISBN 0-387-21309-0
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a b c Cothran, James R. Gardens and historic plants of the antebellum South. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. 2003. pages 166-167. ISBN 1-57003-501-6
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a b c Valder, Peter. The Garden Plants of China. Oregon: Timber Press, 1999. ISBN 0-88192-470-9
^
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a b c “Camellia” (PDF). Flora of China. 12: 367–412. 2007.
^ “Camellia rusticana”. The Plant List. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
^ Waterhouse, Eben Gowrie (August 1963). “Camellia rusticana – The “Snow-camellia” of Japan” (PDF). The Camellia Bulletin. 16 (4): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
^
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a b c Tate, Ken. “The History of Camellias In Australia”. Camellias Australia. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
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a b Hazelwood, Walter G. (1955). “Camellias in Australia” (PDF). American Camellia Yearbook: 65.[permanent dead link]
^
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a b Barker, Geoff (14 May 2014). “The Parramatta River 1848 to 1861 – Personal Observations by W S Campbell”. Parramatta Heritage Centre. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
^
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a b Spencer, Roger, ed. (1995). Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia: Flowering Plants Vol. 2. UNSW Press. p. 324. ISBN 9780868403038.
^ “Horticultur, Farming, Etc”. The Sydney Morning Herald. May 29, 1878. p. 1. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
^ “President’s report”. The Granville Guardian. 18 (3): 1. April 2011.
^ The Book of Sydney Suburbs, Compiled by Frances Pollen, Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1990, Published in Australia ISBN 0-207-14495-8
^ McClymont, John (2009). “Camellia”. Sydney Journal. 2 (1): 84. doi:10.5130/sj.v2i1.1191.
^ O’Neil, W.M. Eben Gowrie Waterhouse. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
^ “E.G. Waterhouse National Camellia Gardens, Caringbah South – Sutherland Shire Council”. www.sutherlandshire.nsw.gov.au.
^ Jorge Garrido: “Portuguese Camellias, History&Beauty” Agro-Manual Publicaçoes, Lda, February 2014. Page: 1
^ “Die Pillnitzer Kamelie (Camellia japonica L.)” (in German). Staatliche Schlösser, Burgen und Gärten Sachsen. 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
^ P. Vela, J. L. Couselo, C. Salinero, M. González, M. J. Sainz: “Morpho-botanic and molecular characterization of the oldest camellia trees in Europe”. In: International Camellia Journal, No. 41, 2009, pp. 51-57
^ Nico Vermeulen. The Complete Encyclopedia of Container Plants, pp. 65-66. Rebo International, Netherlands, 1998. ISBN 90-366-1584-4
^ “Camellia japonica Alba Plena”. internationalcamellia.org.
^ Booth, William B. History and Description of the Species of Camellia and Thea. Published by s.n., 1829. Original from Harvard University. Digitized Jun 4, 2007.
^ The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Published by Hovey., 1836. v. 2. Original from Harvard University. Digitized May 11, 2007.
^ Kirton, Meredith. Dig: Modern Australian Gardening. Murdoch Books, 2004. 399. ISBN 1-74045-365-4
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Adelina Patti'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Adolphe Audusson'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Akashigata'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Alexander Hunter'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Annie Wylam'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Australis'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Berenice Boddy'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Bob Hope'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Bob’s Tinsie'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Bokuhan'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘C. M. Hovey'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Carter’s Sunburst'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Commander Mulroy'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Drama Girl'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Gloire de Nantes'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Grand Prix'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Grand Slam'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Guilio Nucco'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Hagoromo'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Hakurakuten'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Joseph Pfingstl'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Jupiter'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Lavinia Maggi'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Margaret Davies'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Mars'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Masayoshi'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Mercury'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Nuccio’s Jewel'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Sylva'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Tricolor'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Camellia japonica ‘Wilamina'”. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
^ Francko, David. A. Palms won’t grow here and other myths. Oregon: Timber Press, Inc. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-575-6
^ Major Components of Teas Manufactured with Leaf and Flower of Korean Native Camellia japonica L. Cha Young-Ju, Lee Jang-Won, Kim Ju-Hee, Park Min-Hee and Lee Sook-Young, Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science, Volume 12, Issue 3, 2004, pages 183-190 (abstract in English)
^ Pirone, Pascal P. Diseases and pests of ornamental plants. Edition 5. John Wiley and Sons. 1978. 172-175.
^ Elizabeth, Charlotte (1846). Posthumous and Other Poems. Seeley, Burnside, and Seeley. p. 91.