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For different utilizations, see Chrysanthemum (disambiguation).

It has been proposed that segments of this article be parted out into another article named Chrysanthemum × morifolium. (Examine) (February 2020)
Chrysanthemum November 2007 Osaka Japan.jpg
Yellow Chrysanthemum × morifolium. Japanese Ogiku (lit., extraordinary chrysanthemum) style.
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Supertribe: Asterodae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Chrysanthemum
Type species
Chrysanthemum indicum
Chrysanthemum subsect. Dendranthema (DC.) DC. ex Kitam.
Neuractis Cass.
Pyrethrum faction. Dendranthema DC.
Leucanthemum (Tourn.) L.
Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul.
Chrysanthemum (Chinese characters).svg
The Chinese person for “chrysanthemum”
Chinese name
Chinese 菊花
Strict meaning “chrysanthemum-blossom”

Korean name
Hangul 국화
Hanja 菊花

Japanese name
Kanji 菊花
Hiragana きくか

Chrysanthemums (/krɪˈsænθəməm/), here and there called mums or chrysanths,[4] are blossoming plants of the sort Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are local to East Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species start from East Asia and the focal point of variety is in China.[5] Countless plant assortments and cultivars exist.

1 Etymology
2 Taxonomy
3 Description
4 History
5 Economic employments
5.1 Ornamental employments
5.2 Culinary employments
5.3 Insecticidal employments
5.4 Environmental employments
6 Cultural importance and imagery
6.1 East Asia
6.1.1 China
6.1.2 Japan
6.1.3 Korea
6.2 West Asia
6.2.1 Iran
6.2.2 Israel
6.3 Oceania
6.3.1 Australia
6.4 North America
6.4.1 United States
6.5 Europe
6.5.1 Italy
6.5.2 Poland
6.5.3 United Kingdom
7 Species
8 Gallery
9 See moreover
10 References
11 Further perusing
12 External connections
The name “chrysanthemum” is gotten from the Ancient Greek: χρυσός chrysos (gold) and Ancient Greek: ἄνθεμον anthemon (flower).[6][7]

Scientific categorization
The variety once included more species, yet was divided quite a few years ago[when?] into a few genera, placing the monetarily significant flower specialist’s chrysanthemums in the family Dendranthema. The naming of these genera has been argumentative, however a decision of the International Botanical Congress in 1999 changed the characterizing types of the sort to Chrysanthemum indicum, reestablishing the flower vendor’s chrysanthemums to the variety Chrysanthemum.

Genera presently isolated from Chrysanthemum incorporate Argyranthemum, Glebionis, Leucanthemopsis, Leucanthemum, Rhodanthemum, and Tanacetum.


Recorded artistic creation of chrysanthemums from the New International Encyclopedia, 1902

Wild Chrysanthemum taxa are herbaceous enduring plants or subshrubs. They have then again organized leaves partitioned into handouts with toothed or at times smooth edges. The compound inflorescence is a variety of a few blossom heads, or at times a single head. The head takes care of a base in layers of phyllaries. The basic column of beam florets is white, yellow, or red; numerous green examples have been reproduced to bear many lines of beam florets in an extraordinary assortment of tones. The plate florets of wild taxa are yellow. Dust grains are properly 34 microns. The natural product is a ribbed achene.[8] Chrysanthemums begin blossoming right off the bat in the fall. This is otherwise called the most loved blossom for the period of November.[9]

Chrysanthemums (Chinese: 菊花; pinyin: Júhuā) were first developed in China as a blooming spice as far back as the fifteenth century BC.[10] Over 500 cultivars had been recorded by 1630.[8] By 2014 it was assessed that there were north of 20,000 cultivars on the planet and around 7,000 cultivars in China.[11] The plant is prestigious as one of the Four Gentlemen (四君子) in Chinese and East Asian Art. The plant is especially critical during the Double Ninth Festival.

Chrysanthemum development started in Japan during the Nara and Heian periods (mid eighth to late twelfth hundreds of years), and acquired prominence in the Edo time frame (mid seventeenth to late nineteenth century). Many bloom shapes, shadings, and assortments were made. The manner in which the blossoms were developed and formed likewise evolved, and chrysanthemum culture thrived. Different cultivars of chrysanthemums made in the Edo time frame were described by a surprising assortment of blossom shapes, and were traded to China from the finish of the Edo time frame, changing the manner in which Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars were developed and their popularity.[12][13] likewise, from the Meiji time frame (late nineteenth to mid twentieth century), numerous cultivars with blossoms more than 20 cm (7.87 in) in distance across, called the Ogiku (lit., incredible chrysanthemum) style were made, which impacted the ensuing pattern of chrysanthemums.[12] The Imperial Seal of Japan is a chrysanthemum and the establishment of the government is additionally called the Chrysanthemum Throne. Various celebrations and shows happen all through Japan in fall when the blossoms sprout. Chrysanthemum Day (菊の節句, Kiku no Sekku) is one of the five antiquated sacrosanct celebrations. It is commended on the ninth day of the ninth month. It was begun in 910, when the supreme court held its first chrysanthemum show.

Chrysanthemums entered American agriculture in 1798 when Colonel John Stevens imported a developed assortment known as ‘Dull Purple’ from England. The presentation was important for a work to develop attractions inside Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey.[14]

Financial employments
Decorative employments

C. indicum

Various shades of Chrysanthemum x morifolium

Illustration of a Japanese bonsai chrysanthemum
Current developed chrysanthemums are showier than their wild family members. The blossom heads happen in different structures, and can be daisy-like or brightening, similar to pompons or buttons. This sort contains numerous crossovers and huge number of cultivars produced for agricultural purposes. Notwithstanding the customary yellow, different shadings are accessible, like white, purple, and red. The main half breed is Chrysanthemum × morifolium (syn. C. × grandiflorum), got basically from C. indicum, yet additionally including different species.

North of 140 cultivars of chrysanthemum have acquired the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit (affirmed 2017).[15]

Chrysanthemums are isolated into two fundamental gatherings, garden tough and show. Garden strong mums are new perennials equipped for wintering in most northern scopes. Display assortments are not as a rule as durable. Garden hardies are characterized by their capacity to create an overflow of little blossoms with close to nothing if any mechanical help, for example, marking, and enduring breeze and downpour. Display assortments, however, require marking, overwintering in a moderately dry, cool climate, and here and there the expansion of night lights.

The display assortments can be utilized to make many astounding plant structures, for example, enormous disbudded blossoms, splash structures, and many masterfully prepared structures, like thousand-sprout, standard (trees), fans, hanging bushels, shrubbery, bonsai, and falls.

Chrysanthemum sprouts are isolated into 13 different blossom structures by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is with regards to the global grouping framework. The blossom structures are characterized by the manner by which the beam and plate florets are organized. Chrysanthemum blossoms are made out of numerous singular blossoms (florets), every one fit for creating a seed. The plate florets are in the focal point of the sprout head, and the beam florets are on the edge. The beam florets are viewed as flawed blossoms, as they just have the female regenerative organs, while the circle florets are viewed as wonderful blossoms, as they have both male and female conceptive organs.

Unpredictable incurves are reproduced to create a goliath head called an ogiku. The plate florets are hidden in layers of bending beam florets that hang down to make a ‘skirt’. Customary incurves are comparative, however ordinarily with more modest blossoms and a thick, globular structure. Moderate incurve sprouts might have more extensive florets and a less thickly bloomed head.

In the reflex structure, the plate florets are disguised and the beam florets reflex outwards to make a mop-like appearance. The beautiful structure is like reflex blossoms, however the beam florets generally don’t transmit at in excess of a 90° point to the stem.

The pompon structure is completely twofold, of little size, and extremely globular in structure. Single and semidouble sprouts have uncovered circle florets and one to seven lines of beam florets. In the anemone structure, the plate florets are noticeable, frequently raised and eclipsing the beam florets. The spoon-structure plate florets are apparent and the long, cylindrical beam florets are spatulate. In the bug structure, the plate florets are covered, and the beam florets are tube-like with snared or thorned closes, hanging freely around the stem. In the brush and thorn assortment, the circle florets might be apparent.

In Japan, a type of bonsai chrysanthemum was created throughout the long term. The developed bloom has a life expectancy of around 5 years and can be kept in smaller than normal size. Another strategy is to utilize bits of dead wood and the blossom becomes over the back along the wood to give the deception from the front that the scaled down tree sprouts.

Culinary employments
Yellow or white chrysanthemum blossoms of the species C. morifolium are bubbled to make a tea in certain pieces of East Asia. The subsequent drink is referred to just as chrysanthemum tea (菊 花 茶, pinyin: júhuā chá, in Chinese). In Korea, a rice wine enhanced with chrysanthemum blossoms is called gukhwaju (국화주).

Chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or bubbled and utilized as greens, particularly in Chinese food. The blossoms might be added to dishes, for example, mixi

As of February 2020, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species:[46]
Chrysanthemum aphrodite Kitam.
Chrysanthemum arcticum L.
Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Ling
Chrysanthemum arisanense Hayata
Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Grubov
Chrysanthemum chanetii H.Lév.
Chrysanthemum crassum (Kitam.) Kitam.
Chrysanthemum cuneifolium Kitam.
Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.
Chrysanthemum dichrum (C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
Chrysanthemum foliaceum (G.F.Peng, C.Shih & S.Q.Zhang) J.M.Wang & Y.T.Hou
Chrysanthemum glabriusculum (W.W.Sm.) Hand.-Mazz.
Chrysanthemum horaimontanum Masam.
Chrysanthemum hypargyreum Diels
Chrysanthemum indicum L.
Chrysanthemum integrifolium Richardson
Chrysanthemum japonicum (Maxim.) Makino
Chrysanthemum × konoanum Makino
Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Makino
Chrysanthemum leucanthum (Makino) Makino
Chrysanthemum longibracteatum (C.Shih, G.F.Peng & S.Y.Jin) J.M.Wang & Y.T.Hou
Chrysanthemum maximoviczii Kom.
Chrysanthemum miyatojimense Kitam.
Chrysanthemum × morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl.
Chrysanthemum morii Hayata
Chrysanthemum naktongense Nakai
Chrysanthemum ogawae Kitam.
Chrysanthemum okiense Kitam.
Chrysanthemum oreastrum Hance
Chrysanthemum ornatum Hemsl.
Chrysanthemum parvifolium C.C.Chang
Chrysanthemum potentilloides Hand.-Mazz.
Chrysanthemum rhombifolium (Y.Ling & C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
Chrysanthemum × rubellum Sealy
Chrysanthemum × shimotomaii Makino
Chrysanthemum sinuatum Ledeb.
Chrysanthemum vestitum (Hemsl.) Kitam.
Chrysanthemum yantaiense M.Sun & J.T.Chen
Chrysanthemum yoshinaganthum Makino
Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich
Chrysanthemum zhuozishanense L.Q.Zhao & Jie Yang
Former species include:
Chrysanthemum carinatum = Ismelia carinata
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium = Tanacetum cinerariifolium
Chrysanthemum coccineum = Tanacetum coccineum
Chrysanthemum coronarium = Glebionis coronaria
Chrysanthemum frutescens = Argyranthemum frutescens
Chrysanthemum maximum = Leucanthemum maximum
Chrysanthemum pacificum = Ajania pacifica
Chrysanthemum segetum = Glebionis segetum

Bud of a garden chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum × morifolium ‘Tokyo’

Purple Chrysanthemum

pink Chrysanthemum × morifolium

Red chrysanthemum

Closeup view of White Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum × morifolium ‘Vesuvius’

Chrysanthemum zawadskii

Chrysanthemum indicum

Chrysanthemum japonense var. ashizuriense

A peach coloured chrysanthemum

Tiger Tail chrysanthemum

Leaves of chrysanthemum plant

A chrysanthemum show

Yellow Chrysanthemum.

Purple Chrysanthemum
See also[edit]
List of Lepidoptera that feed on chrysanthemums
^ conserved type ratified by General Committee, Nicolson, Taxon 48: 375 (1999)
^ Tropicos, Chrysanthemum L.
^ Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
^ “Chrysanthemums: Rethinking a Fast-Food Flower”. 17 September 2019.
^ Liu, P. L., et al. (2012). Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: Evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences. PLOS One 7(11), e48970. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048970.
^ David Beaulieu. “Chrysanthemums and Hardy Mums – Colorful Fall Flowers”. Home.
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Chrysanthemum” . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Jump up to:
a b Chrysanthemum. Flora of China. eFloras.
^ Flowers Chrysanthemum Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
^ History of the Chrysanthemum. National Chrysanthemum Society, USA
^ The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014, Article ID 625658
Jump up to:
a b c History of chrysanthemums. Odawara City
^ Chrysanthemum exhibition Hiroshima Botanical Garden
^ The New York Botanical Garden, Curtis’ Botanical Magazine, Volume X Bronx, New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 1797
^ “AGM Plants – Ornamental” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 19. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
^ “American serpentine leafminer – Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)”. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
^ B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. McDonald; E. A. Watkins, Jr. “Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes” (PDF). Retrieved 27 December 2013.
^ Flower Meaning. Retrieved 22 September 2007. Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
^ “Chrysanthemum (Mums) Flower Meaning & Symbolism”. Teleflora.
^ “Metairie Cemetery”. PBase.
^ “Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments”. Language of Flowers. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
^ “Birth Month Flower of November – The Chrysanthemum – Flowers, Low Prices, Same Day Delivery”. 1st in Flowers!. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^ “中国开封菊花花会更名为中国开封菊花文化节_新浪新闻”. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
^ “Remarkable Investment Attraction Result of Tongxiang City”. Zhejiang Foreign Frade and Economic Cooperation Bureau. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
^ 2010年03月27日星期六 二月十二庚寅(虎)年. “国学365-中国历代菊花诗365首”. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^ Chao, E. (2009). Niubi: the real Chinese you were never taught in school. Plume.
^ “Chinese Symbols.” The British Museum, 2008. Accessed 4 October 2017.
^ Tang, Weici; Eisenbrand, Gerhard (1992). Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin : Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Use in Traditional and Modern Medicine. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. p. 302. ISBN 9783642737398.
Jump up to:
a b c Buckley, Sandra (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture. Routledge.
^ LOVE OF FLOWERS. “Sketches of Japanese manners and customs” Jacob Mortimer Wier Silver, 1867
^ Inoue, Nobutaka (2 June 2005). “Shinmon”. Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
^ “二本松の菊人形”. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^ Jones, Colin. “Badges of honor: what Japan’s legal lapel pins really mean”. The Japan Times. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
^ “Markings on Japanese Arisaka Rifles and Bayonets of World War II”.
^ Jivanji J. Modi, Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, Bombay: M.J.Karani, 1937, p. 375.
^ “Chrysanthemum flower named after Narendra Modi”. Livemint. 5 July 2017.
^ “Flowering Plants and Shrubs”. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
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a b La Peninsula, xlii (1)
^ Chrysanthemum: The Official Flower of Chicago. Chicago Public Library.
^ City of Salinas Permit Center. City of Salinas Community Development Department.
^ “Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, University of Oklahoma, Mu Chapter”.
^ “Sigma Alpha, University of California, Davis chapter”.
^ “All Saints’ Day”. 1 November 2019.
^ “UK: National Plant Collection to preserve chrysanthemums”. Floral Daily. 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
^ “Chrysanthemum L.” Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
Further reading[edit]
Carvalho, S. M. P.; et al. (2005). “Temperature affects Chrysanthemum flower characteristics differently during three phases of the cultivation period”. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 8 (2): 209–216. doi:10.1080/14620316.2005.11511919. S2CID 86353882.
van der Ploeg, A.; E. Heuvelink. (2006). “The influence of temperature on growth and development of chrysanthemum cultivars: a review”. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 81 (2): 174–182. doi:10.1080/14620316.2006.11512047. S2CID 86403236.
External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chrysanthemum.

Wikispecies has information related to Chrysanthemum.

Germplasm Resources Information Network: Chrysanthemum page on Chrysanthemums
United States National Chrysanthemum Society website
ICBN: List of conserved genera (scroll down for Chrysanthemum)
Auburn University (College of Agriculture) web page on Chrysanthemums
University of California web page on aphid management
Taxon identifiers
Wikidata: Q59882
Wikispecies: Chrysanthemum
APDB: 189454
APNI: 67877
EoL: 38388
FoC: 106957
GBIF: 3150746
GRIN: 2563
iNaturalist: 53808
IPNI: 331492-2
IRMNG: 1011427
ITIS: 35791
NBN: NHMSYS0000457307
NCBI: 13422
NZOR: a59e91e6-4dda-47ce-b299-b8c227f8f5bd
Tropicos: 40008423
VicFlora: 20b750ec-6856-40ea-b645-b069f7fe4b1e
WFO: wfo-4000008177
WoRMS: 1082123

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Asteraceae genera
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National symbols of Japan
Plants used in bonsai