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Cornus florida
Cornus florida Arkansas.jpg
Blooming dogwood in Spring
Protection status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]

Secure (NatureServe)[2]
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Cornales
Family: Cornaceae
Genus: Cornus
Subgenus: Cornus subg. Cynoxylon
Species: C. florida
Binomial name
Cornus florida
Cornus florida range map 1.png
Regular scope of Cornus florida
Benthamia florida (L.) Nakai
Benthamidia florida (L.) Spach
Cornus candidissima Mill.
Cynoxylon floridum (L.) Britton and Shafer
Swida candidissima (Mill.) Small
Cornus urbiniana Rose, syn of subsp. urbiniana
Cornus florida, the blossoming dogwood, is a types of blooming tree in the family Cornaceae local to eastern North America and northern Mexico. An endemic populace once crossed from southernmost beach front Maine south to northern Florida and west to the Mississippi River.[4] The tree is ordinarily planted as an elaborate in private and public regions in view of its ostentatious bracts and intriguing bark structure.

1 Classification
2 Description
3 Cultivation
4 Propagation
5 Historical employments
6 References
7 External connections
The blossoming dogwood is normally remembered for the dogwood family Cornus as Cornus florida L., despite the fact that it is in some cases treated in a different class as Benthamidia florida (L.) Spach. More uncommon names for C. florida incorporate American dogwood, Florida dogwood, Indian arrowwood, Cornelian tree, white cornel, white dogwood, bogus box, and bogus boxwood.

Two subspecies are for the most part perceived:

Image Scientific name Distribution
Blooming Dogwood – Cornus florida (41123271645).jpg Cornus florida subsp. florida eastern + south-focal United States.
Cornus florida ssp urbiniana 2.jpg Cornus florida subsp. urbiniana (Rose) Rickett northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León, Veracruz).
Blooming dogwood is a little deciduous tree developing to 10 m (33 ft) high, frequently more extensive than it is tall when mature, with a trunk breadth of up to 30 cm (1 ft). A 10-year-old tree will remain around 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are inverse, basic, praise, 6-13 cm (2.4-5.1 in) long and 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) wide, with a clearly whole edge (really finely toothed, under a focal point); they turn a rich red-brown in fall.

Blooming dogwood accomplishes its most prominent size and development potential in the Upper South, some of the time up to 40 feet in tallness. At the northern finish of its reach, statures of 30-33 feet are more run of the mill. Warm, damp summer climate is important for new development to solidify off in the fall.

The most extreme life expectancy of C. florida is around 80 years.[5]

The blossoms are separately little, unnoticeable, and sexually unbiased, with four, greenish-yellow petals (not bracts) 4 mm (0.16 in) long. Around 20 blossoms are created in a thick, adjusted, umbel-molded inflorescence, or bloom head, 1-2 cm (0.39-0.79 in) in width. The blossom head is encircled by four obvious enormous white, pink or red bracts (not petals), every bract 3 cm (1.2 in) long and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) wide, adjusted, and frequently with a particular indent at the pinnacle.

When in the wild they can regularly be found at the woodland edge and every now and again on dry edges. While the majority of the wild trees have white bracts, a few chose cultivars of this tree likewise have pink bracts, some even right around a genuine red. They regularly blossom toward the beginning of April in the southern piece of their reach, to late April or early May in northern and high elevation regions. The comparative Kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa), local to Asia, blossoms about a month after the fact.

The organic product is a group of two to ten separate drupes, (intertwined in Cornus kousa), every 10-15 mm (0.39-0.59 in) long and around 8 mm (0.31 in) wide, which mature in the pre-fall and the late-summer to a dazzling red, or incidentally yellow with a ruddy blush. They are a significant food hotspot for many types of birds, which then, at that point, disseminate the seeds. They are additionally a larval host plant for a very long time assortments, including Eudeilinia herminiata, the dogwood thyatirid moth, Antispila cornifoliella, the stinging rose moth, the great curves moth,[6] the walnut bark borer,[7] the dogwood borer,[8] the rosaceaous leaf roller, the diamondback epinotia moth, spring azures,[9] cecropia moths,[10] and the Io moth. While not harmful to people, the organic product is very acrid and horrendous tasting. Blossoming dogwood is monoecious, meaning the tree has both male and female blossoms, and all trees will deliver natural product.

Cornus florida inflorescence, showing four enormous white bracts and focal bloom bunch.

Close up of a bloom bunch showing the four light green petals on each blossom.

Organic products




Blossoming dogwood in all actuality does best horticulturally in soggy, acidic soil in a site with some evening conceal, however great morning sun. It doesn’t do well when presented to extreme hotness sources, for example, adjoining parking areas or cooling blowers. It likewise has a low saltiness resilience. The strength zone is 5-9 and the favored pH is somewhere in the range of 6.0 and 7.0.[11] In metropolitan and rural settings, care ought to be taken not to incur trimmer harm on the storage compartment or roots, as this expands the tree’s vulnerability to illness and nuisance pressure.[11]: 98-100  The normal blossoming dogwood has been put on the jeopardized species list in Ontario.[12][13][14] In areas where dogwood anthracnose is an issue, mortgage holders and public land chiefs are urged to know the manifestations and review trees regularly. The choice of solid, infection free establishing stock is fundamental and relocating trees from the timberland ought to be kept away from. Locales ought to be chosen for sensibly very much depleted, fruitful soils; full sun is suggested in high-danger regions, (for example, stream or lake banks). New plantings ought to be mulched to a profundity of 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in), keeping away from the stem. Dead wood and leaves should be pruned and totally eliminated and obliterated yearly. Plants should be watered week after week during dry seasons, with watering done in the first part of the day, trying not to wet the foliage. Enrolled fungicides can be applied when fundamental, as per producers directions and counsel of neighborhood Extension Service.[15]

Pink assortment blossom bunches
Blossoming dogwood is developed generally all through the calm world.

Chosen cultivars[16]
‘Amerika Touch-O-Pink’ – huge bracts, touched pink; enormous leaves; great sickness opposition.
‘Appalachian Spring’ – huge white bracts; red fall foliage; impervious to dogwood anthracnose.
‘Harvest time Gold’ – white bracts; yellow fall tone.
‘Barton’ – huge white bracts; blossoms at early age; impervious to stem blister and fine buildup.
‘Inlet Beauty’ – twofold white bracts; opposes hotness and dry spell; really great for Deep South.
‘Cherokee Daybreak’ – white bract; vivacious producer with variegated leaves.
‘Cherokee Chief’ – red bracts; red new growth.[17]
‘Cherokee Brave’ – Even redder than ‘Cherokee Chief’, more modest bracts however dull red tone; reliably impervious to fine mold.
‘Cherokee Princess’ – fiery white bracts, industry standard for white blossoms.
‘Cherokee Sunset’ – purplish-red bracts; variegated foliage.
‘Inlet Coast Pink’ – best pink blooming dogwood in Florida – northern part as it were.
‘Hohman’s Gold’ – white bracts; variegated foliage.
‘Jean’s Appalachian Snow’ – huge, covering white bracts w/green blossoms; exceptionally impervious to fine buildup.
‘Karen’s Appalachian Blush’ – sensitive white bracts edged in pink; some fine buildup obstruction.
‘Kay’s Appalachian Mist’ – solid, rich white bracts; red fall foliage; great protection from fine mold.
‘Plena’ – twofold white bracts; spot anthracnose-safe.
‘Purple Glory’ – red bracts; purple foliage; spot anthracnose-safe yet defenseless to stem blister.
‘Weaver White’ – huge white sprouts; enormous leaves; candelabra shape; great in north-focal Florida.

Foliage during fall

Dogwood trees in Nagano, Japan
Cornus florida is effortlessly engendered by seeds, which are planted in the fall into arranged columns of sawdust or sand, and arise in the spring. Germination rates for great clean seed ought to be close 100 percent assuming seed torpidity is first overwhelmed by cool delineation medicines for 90 to 120 days at 4 °C (39 °F).[11]: 100-102 [18] Flowering dogwood exhibits gametophytic self-contradiction, implying that the plants can’t self-treat. This is significant for reproducing programs as it implies that it isn’t important to weaken (eliminate the anthers from) C. florida blossoms prior to making controlled cross-fertilizations. These fertilizations ought to be rehashed each and every day, as the blossoms should be cross-pollinated inside a couple of long periods of opening for fertilizations to be effective.[19]

Tree in the wild in harvest time
Softwood cuttings taken in pre-summer or late-spring from new development can be established under fog whenever treated with 8,000 to 10,000 ppm indole-3-butyric corrosive (IBA). In cool environments, pruned cuttings should be kept in warmed virus outlines or polyhouses the accompanying winter to keep up with temperatures somewhere in the range of 0 and 7 °C (32 and 45 °F). Despite the fact that establishing achievement can be just about as high as 50-85%, this strategy isn’t regularly utilized by business cultivators. Rather, chose cultivars are by and large engendered by T-maturing in pre-fall or by whip uniting in the nursery in winter onto seedling rootstock.[18][11]: 102

Micropropagation of blossoming dogwood is currently utilized in rearing projects planning to join protection from dogwood anthracnose and fine mold into horticulturally and financially significant cultivars. Nodal (axillary bud) segments are set up in a culture of Woody Plant Medium (WPM) changed with 4.4 μmol/L 6-Benzyladenine (BA) to advance sho

^ Stritch, L. (2018). “Cornus florida”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T61990536A61990538. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T61990536A61990538.en. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
^ “NatureServe Explorer”. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
^ “Cornus florida L.” The Plant List.
^ “Cornus florida County distribution map”. The Biota of North America Program. 2014.
^ “Flowering Dogwood”. Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
^ “Lacanobis grandis species information”.
^ “Species Synanthedon geliformis – Pecan Bark Borer – Hodges#2547”.
^ “Species Synanthedon scitula – Dogwood Borer – Hodges#2549”.
^ Adelman, Lauren (July 5, 2017). “The Joy of Butterfly Host Plants”. Lewis Ginter Botanical Gardens. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
^ Adelman, Lauren (July 5, 2017). “The Joy of Butterfly Host Plants”. Lewis Ginter Botanical Gardens. Retrieved April 26, 2020.
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a b c d e Cappiello P, Shadow D (2005). Dogwoods: The Genus Cornus.. Portland: Timber Press.
^ “Eastern flowering dogwood”. Species at Risk. Government of Ontario. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
^ “Species Profile (Eastern Flowering Dogwood) – Species at Risk Public Registry”. Government of Canada, Environment. Archived from the original on June 5, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
^ “USDA Plants Database” (PDF).
^ Anderson RL, Knighten JL, Windham M, Langdon K, Hendrix F, Roncadori R (1994). “Dogwood anthracnose and its spread in the South” (PDF). Project Report R8-PR 26. Atlanta, GA: USDA Forest Service. p. 10.
^ Nowicki M, Boggess SL, Saxton AM, Hadziabdic D, Xiang QJ, Molnar T, Huff ML, Staton ME, Zhao Y, Trigiano RN (October 23, 2018). Heinze B (ed.). “Haplotyping of Cornus florida and C. kousa chloroplasts: Insights into species-level differences and patterns of plastic DNA variation in cultivars”. PLOS ONE. 13 (10): e0205407. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1305407N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205407. PMC 6198962. PMID 30352068.
^ “Cornus florida ‘Cherokee Chief'”. RHS Plant Selector. The Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
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a b Hartmann, HT, DE Kester, FT Davies, RL Geneve. 2002. Hartmann and Kester’s Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, 7th Edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. pp. 769.
^ Reed SM (2004). “Self-incompatibility in Cornus florida”. HortScience. 39 (2): 335–338. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.39.2.335.
^ Kaveriappa KM, Phillips LM, Trigiano RN (April 1997). “Micropropagation of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) from seedlings”. Plant Cell Reports. 16 (7): 485–489. doi:10.1007/BF01092771. PMID 30727637. S2CID 40422365.
^ Sharma AR, Trigiano RN, Witte WT, Schwarz OJ (January 2005). “In vitro adventitious rooting of Cornus florida microshoots”. Scientia Horticulturae. 103 (3): 381–5. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2004.06.014.
^ Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 616. ISBN 0-394-50760-6.
^ Petrides GA (1972). A field guide to trees and shrubs; field marks of all trees, shrubs, and woody vines that grow wild in the northeastern and north-central United States and in southeastern and south-central Canada. The Peterson field guide series. Vol. 11. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 106.
^ “White Dogwood”. Virginia Department of Forestry. Archived from the original on December 7, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
^ “Cornus florida”. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
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a b “State Flower–Dogwood” (PDF). North Carolina Museum of History. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
^ “Dogwood Tree – Beautiful Flowers, Unique Fruits”. Eat The Planet (in American English). January 11, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
^ “U.S. eyes 3,000 dogwoods for ‘sakura’ anniversary. The Japan Times. Posted: Jan. 17, 2012”. January 17, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2014.