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Solidago gigantea
Solidago gigantea01.jpg
Preservation status

Secure (NatureServe)[1]
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. gigantea
Binomial name
Solidago gigantea
Aiton
Synonyms[2]
Synonymy
Solidago gigantea is a North American plant animal types in the sunflower family.[3]: 211  Its normal names incorporate tall goldenrod[4] and goliath goldenrod,[5] among others.

Goldenrod is the state blossom of Kentucky,[6] and Solidago gigantea is the state bloom of Nebraska.[7]

Substance
1 Description
2 Habitat
3 Distribution
3.1 Environmental effect
4 Diseases
5 References
6 External connections
Portrayal
Solidago gigantea is an enduring spice that arrives at statures of up to 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, now and then spreading through underground rhizomes. It regularly develops in bunches without any leaves at the base yet various leaves on the stem. At the top, each stem delivers a sizable exhibit of many little bloom heads, now and then a few hundred. Each head is yellow, containing both circle florets and beam florets.[4]

Detail of inflorescence

Natural surroundings
Solidago gigantea is found in a wide assortment of normal environments, in spite of the fact that it is confined to regions with at minimum occasionally wet soils.[4][8]

Circulation
It is a far and wide animal categories known from the greater part of non-icy North America east of the Rocky Mountains. It has been accounted for from each state and territory from Alberta to Nova Scotia to Florida to Texas, and furthermore from the province of Nuevo León in northeastern Mexico.[9][10]

Ecological effect
Solidago gigantea is exceptionally obtrusive all through Europe and Asia.[11] In its non-local reach, it applies an adverse consequence on local networks by diminishing species lavishness and variety, clearly because of its extraordinary cutthroat effects,[12] fast growth,[13] or polyploidization.[14] In the non-local European reach, a few administration choice are applied, like periodical flooding, cutting, mulching, touching, or herbicide to decrease the adverse consequence of the species on local biodiversity.[15]

Infections
Parasitized by the Basidiomycete Coleosporium asterum.[16]

References[edit]
^ NatureServe (8 January 2021). “Solidago gigantea – Smooth Goldenrod”. NatureServe Explorer (explorer.natureserve.org). Arlington, Virginia: NatureServe. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
^ POWO (2019). “Solidago gigantea Aiton”. Plants of the World Online (powo.science.kew.org). Kew, London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
^ Aiton, W. (1789). Hortus Kewensis; or, a catalogue of the plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew (in Latin). Vol. 3. London: George Nicol. Retrieved 6 February 2021 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
^
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a b c Semple, J.C.; Cook, R.E. (2006). “Solidago gigantea”. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 20. New York and Oxford. Retrieved 8 November 2014 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
^ “Solidago gigantea”. Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
^ Kentucky State Legislature. “Kentucky Revised Statutes: TITLE I SOVEREIGNTY AND JURISDICTION OF THE COMMONWEALTH – CHAPTER 2 CITIZENSHIP, EMBLEMS, HOLIDAYS, AND TIME – 2.090 State flower (PDF)”. Kentucky General Assembly (legislature.ky.gov). Retrieved 6 February 2021. 2.090 State flower. The goldenrod is the official state flower of Kentucky. Effective: October 1, 1942. History: Recodified 1942 Ky. Acts ch. 208, sec. 1, effective October 1, 1942, from Ky. Stat. sec. 4618o.
^ Nebraska Library Commission. “Nebraska State Symbols”. NebraskAccess (nebraskaccess.nebraska.gov). Retrieved 6 February 2021.
^ Hilty, John (2016). “Giant Goldenrod – Solidago gigantea”. Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
^ “Solidago gigantea”. County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
^ “Photo of herbarium specimen collected in Nuevo León, Mexico”. Tropicos (tropicos.org). Retrieved 15 June 2015.
^ Weber, E.; Jakobs, G. (2 May 2005). “Biological flora of central Europe: Solidago gigantea Aiton”. Flora – Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 200 (2): 109–118. doi:10.1016/j.flora.2004.09.001. ISSN 0367-2530. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
^ Pal, R.W.; Chen, S.; Nagy, D.U.; Callaway, R.M. (2015). “Impacts of Solidago gigantea on other species at home and away”. Biological Invasions. New York: Springer. 17 (11): 3317–3325. doi:10.1007/s10530-015-0955-7. S2CID 3035546. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
^ Jakobs, G.; Weber, E.; Edwards, P.J. (2004). “Introduced plants of the invasive Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae) are larger and grow denser than conspecifics in the native range”. Diversity and Distributions. Diversity and Distribution. 10: 11–19. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2004.00052.x. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
^ Nagy, D.U.; Stranczinger, S.; Godi, A.; Weisz, A.; Rosche, C.; Suda, J.; Mariano, M.; Pal, R.W. (April 2018). “Does higher ploidy level increase the risk of invasion? A case study with two geo-cytotypes of Solidago gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae)”. Journal of Plant Ecology. 11 (2): 317–327. doi:10.1093/jpe/rtx005. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
^ Nagy, D.U.; Rauschert, E.S.J.; Henn, T.; Cianfaglione, K.; Stranczinger, S.; Pal, R.W. (June 2020). “The more we do, the less we gain? Balancing effort and efficacy in managing the Solidago gigantea invasion”. Weed Research. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 60 (3): 232–240. doi:10.1111/wre.12417. ISSN 1365-3180. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
^ McTaggart, Alistair R.; Aime, M. Catherine (2018). “The species of Coleosporium (Pucciniales) on Solidago in North America”. Fungal Biology. British Mycological Society (Elsevier). 122 (8): 800–809. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2018.04.007. ISSN 1878-6146.