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Hawthorns
Crataegus, different species, fruit.jpg
Product of four distinct types of Crataegus (clockwise from upper left: C. coccinea, C. punctata, C. ambigua and C. douglasii)
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Genus: Crataegus
Tourn. ex L.
Type species
Crataegus rhipidophylla [1]
Gand.
Crataegus (/krəˈtiːɡəs/[2]), regularly called hawthorn, quickthorn,[3] thornapple,[4] May-tree,[5] whitethorn,[5] or hawberry, is a class of a few hundred types of bushes and trees in the family Rosaceae,[6] local to calm districts of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America. The name “hawthorn” was initially applied to the species local to northern Europe, particularly the normal hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is frequently so utilized in Britain and Ireland. The name is presently likewise applied to the whole class and to the connected Asian family Rhaphiolepis.

Substance
1 Etymology
2 Description
3 Taxonomy
3.1 Selected species
3.2 Selected mixtures
4 Ecology
5 Uses
5.1 Culinary use
5.2 Research
5.3 Traditional medication
5.3.1 Side impacts
5.4 Landscaping
5.5 Grafting
5.6 Bonsai
5.7 Other employments
6 Folklore
7 Propagation
8 References
9 Additional perusing
Historical background
The conventional sobriquet, Crataegus, is gotten from the Greek kratos “strength” on account of the incredible strength of the wood and akis “sharp”, alluding to the thistles of some species.[7] The name haw, initially an Old English expression for support (from the Anglo-Saxon term haguthorn, “a fence with thorns”),[8] likewise applies to the fruit.[9]

Portrayal

Plant of Crataegus monogyna

Close-up of the blossoms of C. monogyna
Crataegus species are bushes or little trees, generally developing to 5-15 m (15-50 ft) tall,[9] with little pome products of the soil prickly branches. The most widely recognized sort of bark is smooth dark in youthful people, creating shallow longitudinal gaps with thin edges in more seasoned trees. The thistles are little sharp-tipped branches that emerge either from different branches or from the storage compartment, and are ordinarily 1-3 cm (1⁄2-1 in) since a long time ago (recorded as up to 11.5 cm or 4+1⁄2 crawls in one case[9]). The leaves develop spirally organized on long shoots, and in groups on prod shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or serrated edges and are to some degree variable in shape. The natural product, at times known as a “haw”, is berry-like yet basically a pome containing from one to five pyrenes that look like the “stones” of plums, peaches, and so forth, which are drupaceous organic product in a similar subfamily.

Scientific categorization
The quantity of species in the variety relies upon ordered translation. A few botanists in the past perceived at least 1000 species,[10] a large number of which are apomictic microspecies. A sensible number is assessed to be 200 species.[9]

The variety is arranged into areas which are additionally separated into series.[11][12] Series Montaninsulae has not yet been doled out to a section.[12][13][14] The segments are:

segment Brevispinae
segment Crataegus
segment Coccineae
segment Cuneatae
segment Douglasia
segment Hupehensis
segment Macracanthae
segment Sanguineae
Chosen species
Principle articles: List of hawthorn species with yellow foods grown from the ground of hawthorn species with dark organic product
Crataegus aemula – Rome hawthorn
Crataegus aestivalis – May hawthorn
Crataegus altaica – Altai hawthorn
Crataegus ambigua – Russian hawthorn
Crataegus ambitiosa – Grand Rapids hawthorn
Crataegus anamesa – Fort Bend hawthorn
Crataegus ancisa – Mississippi hawthorn
Crataegus annosa – Phoenix City hawthorn
Crataegus aprica – radiant hawthorn
Crataegus arborea – Montgomery hawthorn
Crataegus arcana – Carolina hawthorn
Crataegus ater – Nashville hawthorn
Crataegus austromontana – valley head hawthorn
Crataegus azarolus – Azarole hawthorn
Crataegus berberifolia – barberry hawthorn
Crataegus biltmoreana – Biltmore hawthorn
Crataegus boyntonii – smelling hawthorn
Crataegus brachyacantha – blueberry hawthorn[15][16]
Crataegus brainerdii – Brainerd’s hawthorn
Crataegus calpodendron – late hawthorn
Crataegus canbyi
Crataegus chlorosarca
Crataegus chrysocarpa – fireberry hawthorn
Crataegus coccinea – red hawthorn
Crataegus coccinioides – Kansas hawthorn
Crataegus collina – slope hawthorn
Crataegus crus-galli – cockspur hawthorn
Crataegus cuneata – Japanese hawthorn
Crataegus cupulifera
Crataegus dahurica
Crataegus dilatata – broadleaf hawthorn, Apple-leaf hawthorn
Crataegus douglasii – dark hawthorn, Douglas hawthorn
Crataegus ellwangeriana
Crataegus erythropoda – cerro hawthorn
Crataegus flabellata – Gray’s hawthorn, fanleaf hawthorn
Crataegus flava – yellow-fruited hawthorn
Crataegus fluviatilis
Crataegus fontanesiana
Crataegus harbisonii – Harbison’s hawthorn
Crataegus heldreichii
Crataegus heterophylla – different leaved hawthorn
Crataegus holmesiana – Holmes’ hawthorn
Crataegus hupehensis
Crataegus intricata – brush hawthorn, complicated hawthorn
Crataegus iracunda – stolon-bearing hawthorn
Crataegus jackii
Crataegus jonesae
Crataegus kansuensis – Gansu hawthorn
Crataegus laevigata – Midland hawthorn, English hawthorn
Crataegus lassa – sandhill hawthorn
Crataegus lepida
Crataegus macrosperma – huge organic product hawthorn
Crataegus marshallii – parsley-leaved hawthorn
Crataegus maximowiczii
Crataegus mercerensis
Crataegus mexicana – tejocote, Mexican hawthorn
Crataegus mollis – wool hawthorn
Crataegus monogyna – normal hawthorn, oneseed hawthorn
Crataegus nigra – Hungarian hawthorn
Crataegus okanaganensis – Okanagan Valley hawthorn
Crataegus orientalis – oriental hawthorn
Crataegus pedicellata – red hawthorn
Crataegus pennsylvanica – Pennsylvania thistle
Crataegus pentagyna – little blossomed dark hawthorn
Crataegus peregrina
Crataegus persimilis – plumleaf hawthorn
Crataegus phaenopyrum – Washington hawthorn
Crataegus phippsii
Crataegus pinnatifida – Chinese hawthorn
Crataegus populnea – poplar hawthorn
Crataegus pratensis – grassland hawthorn
Crataegus pruinosa – iced hawthorn
Crataegus pulcherrima – excellent hawthorn
Crataegus punctata – spotted hawthorn, white hawthorn: once in a while guaranteed as the state bloom of Missouri,[17] however the regulation doesn’t indicate a species[18]
Crataegus putnamiana
Crataegus pycnoloba
Crataegus rhipidophylla
Crataegus rivularis – stream hawthorn
Crataegus saligna – willow hawthorn
Crataegus sanguinea – redhaw hawthorn, Siberian hawthorn
Crataegus sargentii – Sargent’s hawthorn
Crataegus scabrida – harsh hawthorn
Crataegus scabrifolia
Crataegus songarica
Crataegus spathulata – littlehip hawthorn
Crataegus submollis – Quebec hawthorn
Crataegus succulenta – meaty hawthorn
Crataegus tanacetifolia – tansy-leaved thistle
Crataegus tracyi – Tracy hawthorn
Crataegus triflora – three-blossomed hawthorn
Crataegus uniflora – one-blossomed hawthorn, bantam hawthorn
Crataegus viridis – green hawthorn, including cultivar ‘Winter King’
Crataegus visenda
Crataegus vulsa – Alabama hawthorn
Crataegus wattiana
Crataegus wilsonii – Wilson hawthorn
Chosen cross breeds
Crataegus × ariifolia (= C. ariaefolia)
Crataegus × dsungarica
Crataegus × grignonensis – Grignon hawthorn, an unpublished name
Crataegus × lavalleei – Lavallée hawthorn, including Crataegus × carrierei
Crataegus × macrocarpa
Crataegus × media – the name for C. monogyna-C. laevigata cross breeds
Crataegus × mordenensis – Morden hawthorn, including ‘Toba’ and ‘Seasonal resident’
Crataegus × sinaica – za’rur
Crataegus × smithiana – red Mexican hawthorn, an unpublished name
Crataegus × vailiae
Environment
Hawthorns give food and haven to numerous types of birds and warm blooded animals, and the blossoms are significant for some, nectar-taking care of bugs. Hawthorns are additionally utilized as food plants by the hatchlings of countless Lepidoptera species, like the little eggar moth, E. lanestris. Haws are significant for natural life in winter, especially thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and scatter the seeds in their droppings.

Employments
Culinary use

Crataegus monogyna ‘Ruby Cloud’ in Elko, Nevada
The “haws” or products of the normal hawthorn, C. monogyna, are consumable. In the United Kingdom, they are now and again used to make a jam or hand crafted wine.[19] The leaves are eatable, and in the event that picked in spring when still youthful, are sufficiently delicate enough to be utilized in salads.[20] The youthful leaves and bloom buds, which are additionally eatable, are known as “bread and cheddar” in country England.[19] In the southern United States, products of three local species are aggregately known as mayhaws and are made into jams which are viewed as a delicacy. The Kutenai individuals of northwestern North America utilized red and dark hawthorn natural product for food.

On Manitoulin Island, Ontario, a few red-fruited animal categories are called hawberries. During colonization, European pilgrims ate these natural products throughout the colder time of year as the last food supply. Individuals brought into the world on the island are currently called “haweaters”.

The products of Crataegus mexicana are referred to in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten crude, cooked, or in jam throughout the colder time of year. They are full in the piñatas broken during the conventional pre-Christmas festivity known as Las Posadas. They are likewise cooked with different organic products to set up a Christmas punch. The combination of tejocote glue, sugar, and bean stew powder delivers a famous Mexican candy called rielitos, which is fabricated by a few brands.

The 4 cm products of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) are tart, dazzling red, and take after little crabapple natural products. They are use

References[edit]
^ J. B. Phipps (1997). Monograph of northern Mexican Crataegus (Rosaceae, subfam. Maloideae). Sida, Botanical Miscellany. Vol. 15. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. p. 12. ISBN 9781889878294.
^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
^ I remember the kitchen as being large and airy. , 1974, A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe, Collins, London
^ Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part II: Dicots (Saururaceae–Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
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a b c Graves, Robert. The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth, 1948, amended and enlarged 1966, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
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a b “Crataegus species – The hawthorns”. Plants For A Future. 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
^ Phipps, J. B. (2015), “Crataegus”, in L. Brouillet; K. Gandhi; C. L. Howard; H. Jeude; R. W. Kiger; J. B. Phipps; A. C. Pryor; H. H. Schmidt; J. L. Strother; J. L. Zarucchi (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 9: Magnoliophyta: Picramniaceae to Rosaceae, New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 491–643, ISBN 978-0-19-534029-7 p. 491
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a b c d “Black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii)”. Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Government of British Columbia. 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
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a b c d e f g Phipps, J.B., O’Kennon, R.J., Lance, R.W. (2003). Hawthorns and medlars. Royal Horticultural Society, Cambridge, U.K.
^ Palmer E.J. (1925). “Synopsis of North American Crataegi”. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 6 (1–2): 5–128.
^ Phipps, J.B.; Robertson, K.R.; Smith, P.G.; Rohrer, J.R. (1990), “A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae)”, Canadian Journal of Botany, 68 (10): 2209–2269, doi:10.1139/b90-288
^
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a b Phipps, J.B. (2015), “Crataegus”, in L. Brouillet; K. Gandhi; C.L. Howard; H. Jeude; R.W. Kiger; J.B. Phipps; A.C. Pryor; H.H. Schmidt; J.L. Strother; J.L. Zarucchi (eds.), Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 9: Magnoliophyta: Picramniaceae to Rosaceae, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 491–643, ISBN 978-0-19-534029-7
^ Crataegus Linnaeus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Punctatae (Loudon) Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees ed. 2. 365. 1940
^ Crataegus Linnaeus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Parvifoliae (Loudon) Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees ed. 2. 366. 1940
^ Crataegus brachyacantha Sarg. & Engelm. BLUEBERRY HAWTHORN, Discover Life
^ Crataegus brachyacantha Sarg. & Engelm. Show All blueberry hawthorn, USDA
^ “Missouri State Flower”. 50states.com. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
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a b “Section 10-030 State floral emblem”. mo.gov. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
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a b Wright, John (2010), Hedgerow: River Cottage Handbook Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, ISBN 978-1-4088-0185-7 (pp. 73–74)
^ Richard Mabey, Food for Free, Collins, October 2001.
^ Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 473. ISBN 0-394-50760-6.
^ Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E (23 January 2008). Guo R (ed.). “Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005312. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005312.pub2. PMID 18254076.
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a b Tassell M, Kingston R, Gilroy D, Lehane M, Furey A (2010). “Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease”. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 4 (7): 32–41. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.65324. PMC 3249900. PMID 22228939.
^ “A Modern Herbal – Hawthorn”. botanical.com. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
^ Dharmananda S. (2004). “Hawthorn (Crataegus). Food and Medicine in China”. January. Institute of Traditional Medicine Online.
^ “FirstVoices- Ktunaxa. Plants: medicine plants: words”. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
^ “Hawthorn”. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
^ Dasgupta A, Kidd L, Poindexter BJ, Bick RJ (August 2010). “Interference of hawthorn on serum digoxin measurements by immunoassays and pharmacodynamic interaction with digoxin”. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 134 (8): 1188–92. doi:10.5858/2009-0404-OA.1. PMID 20670141.
^ Tankenow Roberta; Tamer Helen R.; Streetman Daniel S.; Smith Scott G.; Welton Janice L.; Annesley Thomas; Aaronson Keith D.; Bleske Barry E. (2003). “Interaction Study between Digoxin and a Preparation of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha)” (PDF). J Clin Pharmacol. 43 (6): 637–642. doi:10.1177/0091270003253417. hdl:2027.42/97293. PMID 12817526. S2CID 9888330.
^ Williamson, Tom (2013), An Environmental History of Wildlife in England 1650 – 1950 Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1-4411-0863-0 (p. 104)
^ “Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) progression”. Bonsai Empire. 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
^ “Scuil Wab: Wird O The Month – Mey”. Scottish Language Dictionaries. 2003. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
^ “Ne’er cast a clout till May be out”. The Phrase Finder. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
^ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Hawthorn (plant)”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–102.
^ “Hawthorn – Reddish Vale Country Park”. www.reddishvalecountrypark.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
^ “BIVŠI MINISTAR POLICIJE SRBIJE LOVI VAMPIRE! Nekada se borio sa ZEMUNSKIM KLANOM, a sada drži glogov kolac u rukama”. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
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^ Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp.86–127
^ Monaghan, Patricia (11 March 2004). The Red-Haired Girl from the Bog: The Landscape of Celtic Myth and Spirit. New World Library. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-57731-458-5.
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^ Healy, Elizabeth (2002) In Search of Ireland’s Holy Wells. Dublin, Wolfhound Press ISBN 0-86327-865-5 pp.56–7, 69, 81
^ Palmer, Martin and Palmer, Nigel ( The Spiritual Traveler: England, Scotland, Wales : the Guide to Sacred Sites and Pilgrim Routes in Britain, Hidden Spring, ISBN 1-58768-002-5 (p. 200)
^ “Language of Flowers – Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments”. www.languageofflowers.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
^ “Sarah Lucille Turner”. womenscouncil.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
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a b Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z.; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan, New York.
^ Bujarska-Borkowska, B. (2002) Breaking of seed dormancy, germination and seedling emergence of the common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Dendrobiology. 47(Supplement): 61–70. Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine