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Heliotropium
Heliotropium peruvianum.jpg
Heliotropium arborescens
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Heliotropioideae
Genus: Heliotropium
L.
Type species
Heliotropium europaeum
L. [1]
Species
250-300, see text

Equivalents
Beruniella Zakirov and Nabiev
Bourjotia Pomel
Bucanion Steven
Cochranea Miers
Meladendron Molina
Parabouchetia Baill.
Valentina Speg.[2]

Heliotropium/ˌhiːliəˈtroʊpiəm, – lioʊ-/[3] is a class of blossoming plants in the heliotrope family, Heliotropiaceae.[4] There are around 325 species in this practically cosmopolitan genus,[5] which are regularly known as heliotropes (sg. /ˈhiːli.ətroʊp/[clarification needed]). It is profoundly poisonous for canines and felines.

Substance
1 Etymology
2 Morphology
3 Ecology and human use
4 Heliotrine and Heliotridine
5 Taxonomy
6 Origins of Diversification
7 Selected species
7.1 Formerly included here
8 See moreover
9 References
10 External connections
Historical background
The name “heliotrope” gets from the old thought that the inflorescences of these plants turned their columns of blossoms to the sun.[6] Ἥλιος (helios) is Greek for “sun”, τρέπειν (trepein) signifies “to turn”. The Middle English name “turnsole” has a similar significance.

A Classical legend, told in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, envisions that the water sprite Clytie, in affection with the sun god Helios, was sold out by him. Dying, she changed into the heliotrope, whose blossoms probably consistently point toward the sun.

Morphology
Like different individuals from the Heliotropiaceae, plants in the class Heliotropium have 5-merous, tetracyclic blossoms and actinomorphic corollas. They moreover share in their trademark terminal styles and profoundly altered stigmatic heads (basal disgrace, barren summit). Species in the family are ordinarily spices or subshrubs solely and are portrayed by their dry natural products that separation into two or four mericarpids.[7]

5-merosity can be handily found in this picture of Heliotropium strigosum.
Biology and human use

Dim leaf heliotrope Heliotropium ovalifolium at Pocharam lake, Andhra Pradesh, India.
A few heliotropes are well known nursery plants, most prominently garden heliotrope (H. arborescens). A few animal varieties are weeds, and many are hepatotoxic whenever eaten in huge amounts due to plentiful pyrrolizidine alkaloids. There have been instances of canine demise due to over-ingestion of this harmful plant.[8][9] Some danaine butterflies, for example, male sovereign butterflies, visit these plants, being drawn to their pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[10] Though it isn’t attractive and most creatures will totally disregard it, there have been instances of ponies, pig and cows being harmed because of defilement of hay.[11]

Caterpillars of the grass gem (Freyeria trochylus), a gossamer-winged butterfly, feed on H. strigosum.[citation needed]

The sap of heliotrope blossoms, in particular of European heliotrope (H. europaeum), was utilized as a food shading in Middle Ages and Early Modern French cuisine.[citation needed]

Perhaps the most popular jazz piano song is “Heliotrope Bouquet”, created in 1907 by Louis Chauvin (the initial two strains) and Scott Joplin (the last two strains).

Garden heliotrope is filled in Southern Europe as an element for perfume.[12]

The purplish facial rash of dermatomyositis is designated “heliotrope rash” since it looks like E. arborescens.[13]

Heliotrine and Heliotridine
[icon]
This part needs extension. You can help by adding to it. (February 2021)
Seeds of the Heliotropium family were found during the 1940s and 50s to be answerable for liver infection in populaces that devoured them in huge amounts, either incidentally (as a foreign substance of food crops) or intentionally (related with the ingestion of natural mixtures for the treatment of specific sicknesses). The seeds contained high centralizations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, recognized predominantly as the N-oxide of heliotrine (74%), and a couple of different mixtures comparative in character to lasiocarpine.[14]

Scientific classification
Ordered amendment upheld through atomic phylogenetics prompted the acknowledgment of Euploca as family separate from Heliotropium.[15][5] interestingly, the class Tournefortia was remembered for Heliotropium in a 2016 revision.[5]

Inside Heliotropium, there are four significant clades:[5]

Heliotropium faction. Heliothamnus I.M.Johnst.
Old World Heliotropium clade
Heliotropium faction. Cochranea (Miers) Post and Kuntze
Tournefortia clade, involving Tournefortia order. Tournefortia and all excess New World Heliotropium species
Beginnings of Diversification
Three of the four significant clades inside Heliotropium have their focuses of variety in South America. The starting points of the leftover Old World Heliotropium clade can be followed back to a solitary colonization occasion from the New World.[7] ITS1 information shows there is a solitary trademark long erasure between positions 61 and 111 in the genome of the Old World species, which characterizes the Old World Heliotropium species and isolates them from their New World partners. Specialists closed this is a solitary autapomorphic character from a solitary cancellation occasion before. This most sensibly clarifies how the entire gathering might have come to share this trademark erasure when looking at the genomes of Old World and New World Heliotropium.

The most probable driver of Heliotropium broadening across the three New World clades is early Andean elevate. Specialists distinguished three autonomous broadening occasions in the phylogeny of Andean Heliotropium, whose timings compare to late Miocene Andean inspire just as the advancement of dry conditions in South America during the Pliocene. These three broadening occasions each imprint the partition of the Heliothamnus, Cochranea, and Tournefortia clades from the remainder of Heliotropium.[16]

Heliothamnus enhancement is assessed to have occurred in the late Miocene. The time of Heliothamnus recommend that its expansion might have been set off straight by the inspire of the Andes, something that would have advanced speciation in internal Andean valleys and the Andean scour. Most of endemic Heliothamnus taxa in the locale are confined to such conditions, further supporting this hypothesis as the current driving hypothesis clarifying Heliothamnus diversification.[16]

Before the primary ascent of the Andes, Cochranea and Tournefortia coinhabited the Andean district simultaneously and critical speciation had not yet happened. When the Andes started to rise, Cochranea became disengaged on the western side of the Andes while Tournefortia became on the eastern side. This east-west division is still valid for each gathering’s current appropriations. The ascent of the Andes impacted the environment of the locale and is accepted to have added to the hyperaridity of the Atacama Desert, something that might have gone about as an extra boundary to sift through other Heliotropium species into the scope of Cochranea, along these lines advancing Cochranea speciation. Height contrasts would have likewise gone about as obstructions that advanced speciation in Tournefortia species as many huge gatherings inside Tournefortia turned out to be all around adjusted to high-rise conditions while other Heliotropium clades didn’t and along these lines couldn’t coinhabit similar conditions as Tournefortia.[16]

Chosen species
Primary article: List of Heliotropium species

Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum

European heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum)

Indian turnsole (Heliotropium indicum) inflorescence

Heliotropium procumbens habitus

Heliotropium strigosum in Keesara, Ranga Reddy region, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Heliotropium amplexicaule Vahl – catching heliotrope, summer heliotrope, blue heliotrope
Heliotropium anderssonii
Heliotropium angiospermum
Heliotropium anomalum Hook. and Arn. – Polynesian heliotrope, Pacific heliotrope (Pacific Islands)
Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum – hinahina kū kahakai (Hawaii)
Heliotropium arborescens – garden heliotrope, normal heliotrope, cherry pie
Heliotropium argenteum
Heliotropium asperrimum R.Br.
Heliotropium balfourii
Heliotropium bracteatum R.Br.
Heliotropium conocarpum F.Muell. ex Benth.
Heliotropium crispatum F.Muell. ex Benth.
Heliotropium diversifolium F.Muell. ex Benth.
Heliotropium chenopodiaceum (A.DC.) Clos.
Heliotropium claussenii DC.
Heliotropium curassavicum L. – ocean side heliotrope, salt heliotrope, monkey tail, quail plant, Chinese parsley; cola de mico (Spanish)
Heliotropium dentatum
Heliotropium derafontense
Heliotropium ellipticum
Heliotropium epacrideum F.Muell. ex Benth.
Heliotropium europaeum L. – European heliotrope, European turnsole (Europe, Asia, and North Africa)
Heliotropium fasciculatum R.Br.
Heliotropium flintii F.Muell. ex A.S.Mitch.
Heliotropium foertherianum Diane and Hilger – tree heliotrope, velvet soldierbush, octopus shrub (South Asia, East Asia, Melanesia, western Polynesia, northern Australia)
Heliotropium foliatum R.Br.
Heliotropium glabellum R.Br.
Heliotropium heteranthum (F.Muell.) Ewart and O.B.Davies
Heliotropium indicum L. – Indian turnsole
Heliotropium kuriense
Heliotropium laceolatum Loefg.
Heliotropium lineariifolium Phil.
Heliotropium megalanthumn I.M.Johnst.
Heliotropium nigricans
Heliotropium paniculatum R.Br.
Heliotropium pannifolium – St. Helena heliotrope (Saint Helena) (terminated, c. 1820)
Heliotropium pauciflorum R.Br.
Heliotropium paulayanum
Heliotropium pleiopterum F.Muell.
Heliotropium popovii
Heliotropium prostratum R.Br.
Heliotropium ramosissimum
Heliotropium riebeckii
Heliotropium shoabense
Heliotropium sinuatum (Miers) I.M.Johnst.
Heliotropium socotranum
Heliotropium stenophyllum
Heliotropium strigosum Willd.
Heliotropium tenellum
Heliotropium ventricosum R.Br.
Heli

See also[edit]
Turnsole
Heliotrope (disambiguation)
References[edit]
^ “Heliotropium L”. TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
^ “Genus: Heliotropium L”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-04-02. Archived from the original on 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
^ Luebert, Federico; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Frohlich, Michael W.; Gottschling, Marc; Guilliams, C. Matt; Hasenstab-Lehman, Kristen E.; Hilger, Hartmut H.; Miller, James S.; Mittelbach, Moritz; Nazaire, Mare; Nepi, Massimo (2016-06-24). “Familial classification of the Boraginales”. Taxon. 65 (3): 502–522. doi:10.12705/653.5. ISSN 0040-0262.
^
Jump up to:
a b c d Luebert, F.; Cecchi, L.; Frohlich, M.W.; et al. (2016). “Familial classification of the Boraginales”. Taxon. 65 (3): 502–522. doi:10.12705/653.5. ISSN 0040-0262. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
^ Chittenden, Fred J. Ed., Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, Oxford 1951
^
Jump up to:
a b Diane, N.; Forther, H.; Hilger, H. H. (2002-02-01). “A systematic analysis of Heliotropium, Tournefortia, and allied taxa of the Heliotropiaceae (Boraginales) based on ITS1 sequences and morphological data”. American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 287–295. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.287. ISSN 0002-9122.
^ “Veterinarians and Animal Hospital in Limerick, PA”. Archived from the original on 2018-02-17.
^ Kakar, Faizullah et al. “An outbreak of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in Western afghanistan associated with exposure to wheat flour contaminated with pyrrolizidine alkaloids.” Journal of toxicology vol. 2010 (2010): 313280. doi:10.1155/2010/313280
^ Male sex pheromone of a giant danaine butterfly, Idea leuconoe
^ Witherill, Richard (15 January 2013). “Heliotrope”. PAWS Dog Daycare. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
^ Floridata: Heliotropium arborsecens
^ “Dermatomyositis. DermNet NZ”. Archived from the original on 2004-06-04.
^ (Dubrovinskii, 1947, 1952; Khanin, 1948; Bras et al., 1954, 1961; Bras & Hill, 1956; cited in World Health Organization (1988), PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS, INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA 80.
^ Hilger, H.H.; Diane, N. (2003). “A systematic analysis of Heliotropiaceae (Boraginales) based on trnL and ITS1 sequence data”. Botanische Jahrbücher. 125 (1): 19–51. doi:10.1127/0006-8152/2003/0125-0019. ISSN 0006-8152.
^
Jump up to:
a b c Luebert, Federico; Hilger, Hartmut H.; Weigend, Maximilian (October 2011). “Diversification in the Andes: Age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales)”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (1): 90–102. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.001.
^ “GRIN Species Records of Heliotropium”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 978-0-89672-614-7.