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Honeysuckle

For different utilizations, see Honeysuckle (disambiguation).
Honeysuckle
Lonicera-linedrawing1897.svg
1. A blooming branch, 2. A fruiting branch, 3. Longitudinal part of a blossom, 4. Organic product cut on a level plane.
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Caprifoliaceae
Subfamily: Caprifolioideae
Genus: Lonicera
L.
Type species
Lonicera caprifolium
Species
See text – chose species

Honeysuckles (Lonicera,/lɒˈnɪsərə/;[1] syn. Caprifolium Mill.) are angling bushes or twining plants in the family Caprifoliaceae, local to northern scopes in North America and Eurasia.[2] Approximately 180 types of honeysuckle have been distinguished in North America and Eurasia.[2] Widely realized species incorporate Lonicera periclymenum (normal honeysuckle or woodbine), Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle, trumpet honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). L. japonica is a forceful, exceptionally obtrusive species thought about a critical vermin on the mainlands of North America, Europe, South America, Australia, and Africa.[2]

A few animal varieties are exceptionally fragrant and bright, so are developed as elaborate nursery plants. In North America, hummingbirds are drawn to the blossoms, particularly L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa (orange honeysuckle). Honeysuckle gets its name from the palatable sweet nectar realistic from its cylindrical flowers.[3] The name Lonicera comes from Adam Lonicer, a Renaissance botanist.[2]

Substance
1 Description
1.1 Invasive species
2 Cultivation
3 Phytochemicals and tactile impacts
4 Interaction with different species
5 Selected species
6 References
7 External connections
Depiction

Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
Most types of Lonicera are solid twining climbers, with a minority of shrubby habit.[2] Some species (counting Lonicera hildebrandiana from the Himalayan lower regions and L. etrusca from the Mediterranean) are delicate and must be developed outside in subtropical zones. The leaves are inverse, straightforward oval, 1-10 cm long; most are deciduous however some are evergreen. A large number of the species have pleasantly scented, respectively balanced blossoms that produce a sweet, eatable nectar, and most blossoms are borne in bunches of two (prompting the normal name of “twinberry” for specific North American species). Both shrubby and vining sorts have emphatically stringy stems which have been utilized for restricting and materials. The organic product is a red, blue or dark round or lengthened berry containing a few seeds; in many species the berries are somewhat harmful, yet in a couple (strikingly Lonicera caerulea) they are consumable and developed for home use and trade. Most honeysuckle berries are appealing to natural life, which has prompted species like L. japonica and L. maackii spreading intrusively outside of their home reaches. Numerous types of Lonicera are eaten by the hatchlings of a few Lepidoptera animal categories see a rundown of Lepidoptera that feed on honeysuckles.

Intrusive species
The spread of L. japonica in North America started in the United States in 1806, when it was broadly developed by the 1860s.[2] It was first found in Canada in Ontario backwoods in 1976, and became intrusive by 2007.[2] L. japonica was presented in Australia between 1820-40.[2]

A few types of honeysuckle have become intrusive when presented external their local reach, especially in North America, Europe, South America, Australia, and Africa.[2] Invasive species incorporate L. japonica, L. maackii, L. morrowii, L. tatarica, and the crossover between the keep going two, L. × bella.[2]

Development
Honeysuckles are esteemed as nursery plants, for their capacity to cover unattractive dividers and storehouses, their lavish cylindrical blossoms in late-spring, and the extreme aroma of numerous assortments. The strong climbing types need their underlying foundations in conceal, and their blossoming tops in daylight or extremely light shade. Assortments should be picked with care, as they can become significant. Cultivars of the thick, little leaved L. nitida are utilized as low, slender hedges.[4]

The accompanying cross breeds have acquired the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:[5]

L. × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame'[6]
L. ‘Mandarin'[7]
L. × purpusii ‘Winter Beauty'[8]
L. × tellmanniana[9]
Different cultivars are managed under their species names.

The honeysuckle species Lonicera japonica is developed as a business crop for customary Chinese medication use.[10]

Phytochemicals and tangible impacts
Honeysuckle is eminent for its vivid, fragrant flowers[11][12] and differently hued natural product, demonstrating the presence of intricate phytochemicals basic these properties. Part examinations of berries from 27 distinct cultivars and 3 genotypes of palatable honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica) showed the presence of iridoids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids.[13] While sugars decide the degree of pleasantness in the berries, natural acids and polyphenols are answerable for the harsh taste and tartness.[13] Some 51 of similar mixtures in berries are found in blossoms, albeit the extents of these mixtures changed among cultivars studied.[14]

Communication with different species
Numerous bugs in the request Lepidoptera visit honeysuckles as a food source. An illustration of this is the moth Deilephila elpenor. This nighttime types of moth is particularly drawn to honeysuckles, and they visit the blossoms around evening time to benefit from their nectar.[15]

Chosen species
About 180 types of Lonicera are documented.[2][16]

Lonicera acuminata or Lonicera pampaninii – fragrant woods honeysuckle or plant honeysuckle
Lonicera albiflora – white honeysuckle
Lonicera alpigena – high honeysuckle
Lonicera altmannii
Lonicera × History of the U.S
Lonicera angustifolia
Lonicera anisocalyx
Lonicera arborea
Lonicera arizonica – Arizona honeysuckle
Lonicera × bella – Bell’s honeysuckle or gaudy fly honeysuckle
Lonicera biflora
Lonicera bournei
Lonicera brevisepala
Lonicera buchananii
Lonicera buddleioides
Lonicera caerulea – blue-berried honeysuckle
Lonicera calcarata
Lonicera calvescens
Lonicera canadensis – Canada fly honeysuckle, American fly honeysuckle
Lonicera caprifolium – goat-leaf honeysuckle, perfoliate honeysuckle
Lonicera carnosifolis
Lonicera cerviculata
Lonicera chrysantha – Chrysantha honeysuckle
Lonicera ciliosa – orange honeysuckle
Lonicera ciliosissima
Lonicera cinerea
Lonicera codonantha
Lonicera confusa
Lonicera conjugialis – purpleflower honeysuckle
Lonicera crassifolia
Lonicera cyanocarpa
Lonicera dasystyla – Tonkinese honeysuckle
Lonicera dioica – nimble honeysuckle
Lonicera elisae
Lonicera etrusca – Etruscan honeysuckle
Lonicera fargesii
Lonicera ferdinandii
Lonicera ferruginea
Lonicera flava – yellow honeysuckle
Lonicera fragilis
Lonicera fragrantissima – winter honeysuckle
Lonicera fulvotomentosa
Lonicera glutinosa
Lonicera graebneri
Lonicera gynochlamydea
Lonicera × heckrottii – Golden fire honeysuckle
Lonicera hellenica – Greek honeysuckle
Lonicera hemsleyana
Lonicera heterophylla
Lonicera hildebrandiana – goliath Burmese honeysuckle
Lonicera hirsuta – furry honeysuckle
Lonicera hispida
Lonicera hispidula – pink honeysuckle
Lonicera humilis
Lonicera hypoglauca
Lonicera hypoleuca
Lonicera implexa
Lonicera inconspicua
Lonicera inodora
Lonicera interrupta – Chaparral honeysuckle
Lonicera involucrata – bearberry honeysuckle
Lonicera japonica – Japanese honeysuckle
Lonicera jilongensis
Lonicera kansuensis
Lonicera kawakamii
Lonicera korolkowii – blueleaf honeysuckle
Lonicera lanceolata
Lonicera ligustrina
Lonicera litangensis
Lonicera longiflora
Lonicera longituba
Lonicera maackii – Amur honeysuckle
Lonicera macrantha
Lonicera macranthoides
Lonicera maximowiczii
Lonicera microphylla
Lonicera minuta
Lonicera minutifolia
Lonicera modesta
Lonicera morrowii – Morrow’s honeysuckle
Lonicera mucronata
Lonicera myrtillus
Lonicera nervosa
Lonicera nigra – dark berried honeysuckle
Lonicera nitida – boxleaf honeysuckle
Lonicera nubium
Lonicera nummulariifolia
Lonicera oblata
Lonicera oblongifolia – swamp fly honeysuckle
Lonicera oiwakensis
Lonicera oreodoxa
Lonicera orientalis
Lonicera paradoxa
Lonicera periclymenum – (normal) honeysuckle, European honeysuckle, or woodbine
Lonicera pileata – privet honeysuckle
Lonicera pilosa – Mexican honeysuckle
Lonicera praeflorens
Lonicera prostrata
Lonicera pyrenaica – Pyrenean honeysuckle
Lonicera quinquelocularis – clear honeysuckle
Lonicera reticulata – grape honeysuckle
Lonicera retusa
Lonicera rhytidophylla
Lonicera rupicola
Lonicera ruprechtiana – Manchurian honeysuckle
Lonicera saccata
Lonicera schneideriana
Lonicera semenovii
Lonicera sempervirens – trumpet honeysuckle
Lonicera serreana
Lonicera setifera
Lonicera similis – var. delavayi – Delavay honeysuckle
Lonicera spinosa
Lonicera splendida – evergreen honeysuckle
Lonicera standishii – Standish’s honeysuckle
Lonicera stephanocarpa
Lonicera subaequalis
Lonicera subhispida
Lonicera sublabiata
Lonicera subspicata – southern honeysuckle
Lonicera szechuanica
Lonicera taipeiensis
Lonicera tangutica
Lonicera tatarica – Tatarian honeysuckle
Lonicera tatarinowii
Lonicera tomentella
Lonicera tragophylla – Chinese honeysuckle
Lonicera tricalysioides
Lonicera trichogyne
Lonicera trichosantha
Lonicera tubuliflora
Lonicera utahensis – Utah honeysuckle
Lonicera villosa – mountain fly honeysuckle
Lonicera virgultorum
Lonicera webbiana
Lonicera xylosteum – fly woodbine
Lonicera yunnanensis

References[edit]
^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
^
Jump up to:
a b c d e f g h i j k “Lonicera japonica”. CABI. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
^ “Honeysuckle”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2017.
^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
^ “AGM Plants – Ornamental” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 61. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
^ “RHS Plantfinder – Lonicera × heckrottii ‘Gold Flame'”. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
^ “RHS Plantfinder – Lonicera ‘Mandarin'”. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lonicera x purpusii ‘Winter Beauty'”. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
^ “RHS Plant Selector – Lonicera x tellmannia”. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: “Across China: Honeysuckle Planting in Tongwei”. New China TV. 17 November 2019.
^ Beardshaw, Chris (2 May 2009). “The honey trap”. The Guardian. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
^ Taft, Dave (24 June 2016). “Why the Sweet Scent of Japanese Honeysuckle Signals Trouble”. New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
^
Jump up to:
a b Kucharska, A. Z.; Sokół-Łętowska, A; Oszmiański, J; Piórecki, N; Fecka, I (2017). “Iridoids, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica Sevast.)”. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 22 (3): 405. doi:10.3390/molecules22030405. PMC 6155291. PMID 28273885.
^ Kula, M; Głód, D; Krauze-Baranowska, M (2016). “Application of on-line and off-line heart-cutting LC in determination of secondary metabolites from the flowers of Lonicera caerulea cultivar varieties”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 131: 316–326. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2016.09.010. PMID 27622313.
^ South, Richard (1907). The Moths of the British Isles. F. Warne & Company. p. 1. elephant hawk moth.
^ “GRIN Species Records of Lonicera”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2012-12-13. Retrieved 2010-09-16.