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“Lavender” diverts here. For the shading, see Lavender (shading). For different utilizations, see Lavender (disambiguation).
Single lavender flower02.jpg
Lavender blossoms with bracts
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Nepetoideae
Tribe: Ocimeae
Genus: Lavandula
Type species
Lavandula spica
Stoechas Mill.
Fabricia Adans.
Styphonia Medik.
Chaetostachys Benth.
Sabaudia Buscal. and Muschl.
Plectranthus mona lavender
Isinia Rech.f.
Lavandula (normal name lavender) is a class of 47 known types of blossoming plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is local to the Old World and is found in Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, and from Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to India.[2]

Numerous individuals from the sort are developed broadly in mild environments as elaborate plants for nursery and scene use, for use as culinary spices, and furthermore financially for the extraction of fundamental oils.[3] The most generally developed species, Lavandula angustifolia, is frequently alluded to as lavender, and there is a shading named for the shade of the blossoms of this species. Lavender has been involved over hundreds of years in conventional medication and beauty care products, and “restricted clinical preliminaries support helpful utilization of lavender for torment, hot flushes, and post pregnancy perineal discomfort.”[4][5]

1 Description
2 Nomenclature and scientific classification
3 Etymology
4 Cultivation
5 Lavender oil
5.1 Phytochemicals
6 Culinary use
6.1 Use of buds
6.2 Use of greens
6.3 In honey
7 Other employments
8 In history and culture
8.1 Culinary history
9 Research
10 Herbalism
11 Health safety measures
11.1 Adverse impacts
12 Taxonomic table
13 Gallery
14 References
15 Further perusing
16 External connections
The variety incorporates yearly or fleeting herbaceous perpetual plants, and bush like perennials, subshrubs or little shrubs.[6]

Leaf shape is different across the variety. They are basic in a few ordinarily developed animal varieties; in different species, they are pinnately toothed, or pinnate, here and there numerous pinnate and analyzed. In many species the leaves are canvassed in fine hairs or indumentum, which typically contain the fundamental oils.[6]

Blossoms are borne in whorls, hung on spikes transcending the foliage, the spikes being expanded in certain species. A few animal groups produce hued bracts at the tips of the inflorescences. The blossoms might be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, once in a while blackish purple or yellowish. The calyx is rounded. The corolla is likewise rounded, for the most part with five projections (the upper lip frequently separated, and the lower lip has two clefts).[6][7]

Terminology and scientific categorization
Lavandula stoechas, L. pedunculata, and L. dentata were known in Roman times.[8] From the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were viewed as two separate gatherings or genera, Stoechas (L. stoechas, L. pedunculata, L. dentata) and Lavandula (L. spica and L. latifolia), until Linnaeus consolidated them. He just perceived five species in Species Plantarum (1753), L. multifida and L. dentata (Spain) and L. stoechas and L. spica from Southern Europe. L. pedunculata was incorporated inside L. stoechas.

By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were perceived. The last option was thusly moved to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz recorded 12 species in three segments, and by 1848 eighteen species were known.[8]

One of the principal present day significant groupings was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew. The six segments she proposed for 28 species actually left many intermediates that couldn’t without much of a stretch be allocated. Her segments included Stoechas, Spica, Subnudae, Pterostoechas, Chaetostachys, and Dentatae. Anyway every one of the major developed and business structures lived in the Stoechas and Spica areas. There were four species inside Stoechas (Lavandula stoechas, L. dentata, L. viridis, and L. pedunculata) while Spica had three (L. officinalis (presently L. angustifolia), L. latifolia and L. lanata). She accepted that the nursery assortments were crossovers between evident lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender (L. latifolia). [9]

Lavandula has three subgenera:[citation needed]

Subgenus Lavandula is mostly of woody bushes with whole leaves. It contains the important species developed as elaborate plants and for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean district to upper east Africa and western Arabia.
Subgenus Fabricia comprises of bushes and spices, and it has a wide conveyance from the Atlantic to India. It contains a few elaborate plants.
Subgenus Sabaudia establishes two species in the southwest Arabian landmass and Eritrea, which are somewhat unmistakable from different species, and are at times put in their own family Sabaudia.
Likewise, there are various crossovers and cultivars in business and green usage.[6]

The principal significant clade compares to subgenus Lavandula, and the second Fabricia. The Sabaudia bunch is less plainly characterized. Inside the Lavandula clade, the subclades compare to the current areas, however place Dentatae independently from Stoechas, not inside it. Inside the Fabricia clade, the subclades relate to Pterostoechas, Subnudae, and Chaetostachys.

Subsequently the current grouping incorporates 39 species circulated across 8 segments (the first 6 of Chaytor and the two new segments of Upson and Andrews), in three subgenera (see table beneath). Notwithstanding, since lavender cross-pollinates effectively, incalculable varieties present troubles in characterization.

Historical underpinnings
The English word lavender is by and large remembered to be gotten from Old French lavandre, at last from the Latin lavare (to wash), alluding to the utilization of implantations of the plants.[10] The botanic name Lavandula as utilized by Linnaeus is viewed as gotten from this and other European vernacular names for the plants. Anyway it is recommended that this clarification might be fanciful, and that the name might be gotten from Latin livere, “blueish”.[11]

The names generally utilized for a portion of the animal groups, “English lavender”, “French lavender” and “Spanish lavender” are altogether loosely applied. “English lavender” is ordinarily utilized for L. angustifolia, however a few references say the legitimate term is “Early English Lavender”.[12] The name “French lavender” may allude to one or the other L. stoechas or to L. dentata. “Spanish lavender” may allude to L. stoechas, L. lanata or L. dentata.


A bumble bee on a lavender bloom
The most widely recognized structure in development is the normal or English lavender Lavandula angustifolia (previously named L. officinalis). A wide scope of cultivars can be found. Other ordinarily developed elaborate species are L. stoechas, L. dentata, and L. multifida (Egyptian lavender).

Since the developed structures are planted in gardens around the world, they are once in a while observed developing wild as nursery get away, past their regular reach. Such unconstrained development is typically innocuous, however now and again Lavandula species have become intrusive. For instance, in Australia, Lavandula stoechas has turned into a reason for concern; it happens broadly all through the landmass, and has been proclaimed a toxic weed in Victoria since 1920.[13] It is viewed as a weed in pieces of Spain.[14]

Lavenders prosper best in dry, all around depleted, sandy or gravelly soils in full sun.[15] English Lavender has a long germination process (14-28 days) and develops inside 100-110 days.[16] All types need almost no manure and great air flow. In areas of high mugginess, root decay because of parasite contamination can be an issue. Natural mulches can trap dampness around the plants’ bases, empowering root decay. Gravelly materials, for example, squashed rocks give better results.[17] It fills best in soils with a pH somewhere in the range of 6 and 8.[18] Most lavender is hand-collected, and gather times fluctuate contingent upon expected use.[18]

Lavender oil
“Lavandin” diverts here. For the racehorse, see Lavandin (horse).
Primary article: Lavender oil
Financially, the plant is developed predominantly for the creation of lavender rejuvenating ointment of lavender. English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) yields an oil with sweet hints, and can be utilized in emollients, treatments, scents, beauty care products, and skin applications.[4] Lavandula × intermedia, otherwise called lavandin or Dutch lavender, yields a comparable rejuvenating oil, yet with more significant levels of terpenes including camphor, which add a more honed suggestion to the aroma.

The lavandins Lavandula × intermedia are a class of half and halves of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia.[19] The lavandins are broadly developed for business use, since their blossoms will quite often be greater than those of English lavender and the plants will generally be simpler to reap, however lavandin oil is respected by some to be of a lower quality than that of English lavender, with a fragrance less sweet.[20]

The US Food and Drug Administration considers lavender as for the most part perceived as protected (GRAS) for human consumption.[21] The medicinal oil was utilized in clinics during World War I.[15]

Somewhere in the range of 100 individual phytochemicals have been separated from lavender oil, including significant substance of linalyl acetic acid derivation (30-55%), linalool (20-35%), tannins (5-10%), and caryophyllene (8%), with lesser measures of sesquiterpenoids, perillyl alcohols, esters, oxides, ketones, cineole, camphor, beta-ocimene, limonene, caproic corrosive, and caryophyllene oxide.[4][21][22] The general measures of these mixtures fluctuate impressively among lavender species.[4]

Culinary use

Lavender-seasoned cupcakes
Culinary lavender is normally English lavender, the most usually involved species in cooking (L. angustifolia ‘Munstead’). As a sweet-smelling, it has a sweet aroma with lemon or citrus notes.[23] It is utilized as a flavor or topping in pastas, mixed greens and dressin
^ “World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew”.
^ “Outdoor flowering plants – mona lavender”. HGTV. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
^ “Plant finder – Plectranthus Mona lavender”. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
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a b c d e f “Lavender”. 1 November 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
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a b c d e “Lavender”. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
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a b c d e Upson T, Andrews S (2004). The Genus Lavandula. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2004. ISBN 9780881926422. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
^ L. H. Bailey. Manual of Cultivated Plants. MacMillan Publishing Company.
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a b Lis-Balchin M, ed. (2002). Lavender: The genus Lavandula. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9780203216521.
^ Chaytor D A. A taxonomic study of the genus Lavandula. 1937
^ Concise Oxford Dictionary
^ The alternative derivation of the name lavender from Latin livere and medieval Latin lavindula is given in Upson and Andrews, where it is presented as a conjecture. The problems with the standard derivation are also described; such as that there is no knowledge of the common use of lavender for washing by Greeks and Romans.
^ Hillier
^ Carr, G.W, Yugovic, J.V and Robinson, K.E.. ‘Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria – conservation and management implications’ 1992 Pub: Department of Conservation and Environment and Ecological Horticulture, Victoria, Australia
^ Csurches S., Edwards R.; National Weeds Program, Potential Environmental Weeds in Australia, Candidate Species for Preventative Control; Queensland Department of Natural Resources. January 1998 ISBN 0-642-21409-3 Also [1] Archived 2007-10-10 at the Wayback Machine
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a b Grieve, Mrs. M. A Modern Herbal, Vol. II, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1971. ISBN 0-486-22799-5
^ “Seed Almanac, Lavender”. Back to the Roots. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
^ Kathleen Norris Brenzel, editor, The Sunset Western Garden Book, 7th Edition
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a b Ernst, Matt (2017). “Lavender” (PDF). University of Kentucky Center for Crop Diversification.
^ Mark Griffiths, Index of Garden Plants (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 1994. ISBN 0-333-59149-6.)
^ National Non-Food Crops Centre. “Lavender” Archived 2009-11-16 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2009-04-23.
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a b “Lavender”. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed), National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
^ Umezu, Toyoshi; Nagano, Kimiyo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Kosakai, Kiyomi; Sakaniwa, Misao; Morita, Masatoshi (1 December 2006). “Anticonflict effects of lavender oil and identification of its active constituents”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 85 (4): 713–721. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.10.026. PMID 17173962. S2CID 21779233.
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a b c d e Lavender
^ Pasta With Shredded Vegetables and Lavender Recipe, New York Times, 08.27.2008
^ M. G. Kains (1912). American Agriculturist (ed.). Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses (English). Orange Judd Company.
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a b “Cooking with Lavender – Purple Haze Lavender (Sequim, WA)”. Purple Haze Lavender.
^ “Cooking with Lavender?”. Chowhound. June 24, 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ “Cooking With Lavender”, Bon Appetit, March 27, 2015
^ Stradley, Linda (22 April 2015). “Lavender Scones, Whats Cooking America”. What’s Cooking America. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ Maclain, Ben (2 May 2015). “Lavender Marshmallows – Havoc In The Kitchen”. Havoc In The Kitchen. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ “Lavender: 12 Uses Beyond Potpourri”. living on a green thumb. October 7, 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
^ McCray, Carole. “Lavender – the loveliest of herbs”. The Register-Guard. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
^ The origin of most of these quotes comes from Dr. William Thomas Fernie, in his book “Herbal Simples” (Bristol Pub., second edition, 1897), page 298:
‘By the Greeks the name Nardus is given to Lavender, from Naarda, a city of Syria near the Euphrates, and many persons call the plant “Nard.” St. Mark mentions this as Spikenard, a thing of great value. In Pliny’s time, blossoms of the Nardus sold for a hundred Roman denarii (or L.3 2s. 6d.) the pound. This Lavender or Nardus was called Asarum by the Romans, because it was not used in garlands or chaplets. It was formerly believed that the asp, a dangerous kind of viper, made Lavender its habitual place of abode, so that the plant had to be approached with great caution.’
^ Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). 1989. Note however that Upson and Andrews refer to research on bathing in the Roman Empire, and state that there is no mention of the use of lavender in works on this subject.
^ “The Forme of Cury”. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 29 October 2020. PUR FAIT YPOCRAS. XX.IX. XI. Treys Unces de canett. & iii unces de gyngeuer, spykenard de Spayn le pays dun denerer, garyngale, clowes, gylofre, poeurer long, noiez mugadez, maziozame cardemonij de chescun i quart’ douce grayne & de paradys stour de queynel de chescun dim unce de toutes, soit fait powdour &c.
^ J.-B. Reboul; Cuisinière Provençale (1910)
^ Laget, F. (2005). “From its Birthplace in Egypt to Marseilles, an Ancient Trade: Drugs and Spices”. Diogenes. 52 (3): 131–139. doi:10.1177/0392192105055941. S2CID 144212782.
^ Charles, Denys J. (2012), “Lavender”, Antioxidant Properties of Spices, Herbs and Other Sources, New York, NY: Springer New York, p. 365, ISBN 9781461443100, retrieved 2021-09-05
^ Kasper, S; Gastpar, M; Müller, WE; Volz, HP; Möller, HJ; Dienel, A; Schläfke, S (2010). “Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of ‘subsyndromal’ anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial”. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 25 (5): 277–87. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32833b3242. PMID 20512042. S2CID 46290020.
^ Perry, R; Terry, R; Watson, L. K.; Ernst, E (2012). “Is lavender an anxiolytic drug? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials”. Phytomedicine. 19 (8–9): 825–35. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.02.013. PMID 22464012.
^ “Expanded Commission E monograph: Lavender flower”. Integrative Medicine Communications, Germany; from the American Botanical Council. 2000. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
^ “Oils ‘make male breasts develop'”. British Broadcasting Corporation. February 2007. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
^ “More evidence essential oils ‘make male breasts develop'”. British Broadcasting Corporation. March 2018. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
^ Placzek, M; Frömel, W; Eberlein, B; Gilbertz, KP; Przybilla, B (2007). “Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances”. Acta Dermato-venereologica. 87 (4): 312–6. doi:10.2340/00015555-0251. PMID 17598033. Also, oils of lemon, lavender, lime, sandalwood, and cedar are known to elicit cutaneous phototoxic reactions, but lavender, sandalwood, and cedar oil did not induce photohaemolysis in our assay…Lavender oil and sandalwood oil did not induce photohaemolysis in our test system. However, a few reports on photosensitivity reactions due to these substances have been published, e.g. one patient with persistent light reaction and a positive photo-patch test to sandalwood oil