“Lily” and “Lilies” divert here. For different utilizations, see Lilium (disambiguation), Lily (disambiguation), and Lilies (disambiguation).
For different plants called lilies, see List of plants known as lily.
Lilium candidum 1.jpg
Rundown of Lilium species
Lirium Scop., nom. illeg.
Martagon (Rchb.) Opiz, nom. illeg.
Lilium is a variety of herbaceous blossoming plants developing from bulbs, all with enormous conspicuous blossoms. They are the genuine lilies. Lilies are a gathering of blooming plants which are significant in culture and writing in a large part of the world. Most species are local to the mild northern half of the globe, however their reach stretches out into the northern subtropics. Numerous different plants have “lily” in their normal names, yet don’t have a place with similar family and are accordingly false lilies.
3 Distribution and natural surroundings
5.2 Classification of nursery structures
5.2.1 Asiatic cross breeds (Division I)
5.2.2 Martagon half and halves (Division II)
5.2.3 Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) half and halves (Division III)
5.2.4 American half and halves (Division IV)
5.2.5 Longiflorum half and halves (Division V)
5.2.6 Trumpet lilies (Division VI), including Aurelian half and halves (with L. henryi)
5.2.7 Oriental half and halves (Division VII)
5.2.8 Other half and halves (Division VIII)
5.2.9 Species (Division IX)
5.3 Pests and infections
5.4 Propagation and development
7 Culinary employments
7.1 Chinese cooking
7.3 Japanese cooking
7.3.2 Species utilized
7.4 North America
8 Medicinal employments
9 In culture
9.3 Other plants alluded to as lilies
10 See moreover
11 Explanatory notes
13 External connections
Lilium longiflorum bloom – 1. Disgrace, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Fiber, 5. Tepal
Lilies are tall perennials running in range from 2-6 ft (60-180 cm). They structure bare or tunicless layered underground bulbs which are their organs of perennation. In a few North American animal groups the foundation of the bulb forms into rhizomes, on which various little bulbs are found. A few animal categories foster stolons. Most bulbs are covered somewhere down in the ground, yet a couple of animal categories structure bulbs close to the dirt surface. Numerous species structure stem-roots. With these, the bulb develops normally at some profundity in the dirt, and every year the new stem puts out unusual roots over the bulb as it rises up out of the dirt. These roots are notwithstanding the basal roots that create at the foundation of the bulb.
The blossoms are enormous, frequently fragrant, and arrive in a wide scope of shadings including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings incorporate spots and brush strokes. The plants are pre-summer or summer-blooming. Blossoms are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give blossoms differing from channel shape to a “Turk’s cap”. The tepals are liberated from one another, and bear a nectary at the foundation of each bloom. The ovary is ‘prevalent’, borne over the mark of connection of the anthers. The organic product is a three-celled capsule.
stamen of lilium
Seeds age in pre-fall. They show differing and in some cases complex germination designs, many adjusted to cool mild environments.
Most cool calm species are deciduous and lethargic in winter in their local climate. Yet, a couple of animal varieties local to regions with sweltering summers and gentle winters (Lilium candidum, Lilium catesbaei, Lilium longiflorum) lose their leaves and enter a short lethargic period in summer or fall, sprout from harvest time to winter, shaping bantam stems bearing a basal rosette of leaves until, after they have gotten adequate cooling, the stem starts to stretch in warming climate.
Lilium candidum seeds
The fundamental chromosome number is twelve (n=12).
Taxonomical division in segments follows the old style division of Comber, species acknowledgment follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, the scientific classification of segment Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America, the scientific classification of Section Liriotypus is given regarding Resetnik et al. 2007, the scientific categorization of Chinese species (different areas) follows the Flora of China and the scientific classification of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al. as does the scientific classification of Section Archelirion.
The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, as of January 2014, considers Nomocharis a different sort in its own right, anyway a few specialists believe Nomocharis to be installed inside Lilium, instead of regarding it as a different genus.
There are seven areas:
For a full rundown of acknowledged species with their local reaches, see List of Lilium species
Picture Section Sub Section Botanical name common name
A few animal types previously included inside this family have now been set in different genera. These genera incorporate Cardiocrinum, Notholirion, Nomocharis and Fritillaria.
The botanic name Lilium is the Latin structure and is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is gotten from the Greek λείριον, leírion, by and large expected to allude to valid, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily. The word was acquired from Coptic (dial. Fayyumic) hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from Egyptian hrṛt “flower”. Meillet keeps up with that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are potential credits from a terminated, base language of the Eastern Mediterranean. Ancient Greek: κρῖνον, krīnon, was utilized by the Greeks, yet for lilies of any color.
The expression “lily” has in the past been applied to various blossoming plants, regularly with just shallow similarity to the genuine lily, including water lily, fire lily, lily of the Nile, calla lily, trout lily, kaffir lily, cobra lily, lily of the valley, daylily, ginger lily, Amazon lily, leek lily, Peruvian lily, and others. All English interpretations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as “lily”, yet the “lily among the thistles” of Song of Solomon, for example, might be the honeysuckle.
For a rundown of different animal categories portrayed as lilies, see Lily (disambiguation).
Conveyance and living space
Turk’s cap lily filling in the Carinthian Alps
The scope of lilies in the Old World stretches out across a lot of Europe, across a large portion of Asia to Japan, south to India, and east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the New World they stretch out from southern Canada through a large part of the United States. They are ordinarily adjusted to either forest environments, regularly montane, or now and again to meadow living spaces. A couple can make due in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. Overall they favor decently acidic or without lime soils.
Lilies are utilized as food plants by the hatchlings of a few Lepidoptera animal types including the Dun-bar.
The expansion of deer (for example Odocoileus virginianus) in many spots, predominantly because of variables like the disposal of huge hunters for human wellbeing, is answerable for a slump in lily populaces in the wild and is a danger to cultivate lilies as well. Fences as high as 8 feet might be needed to keep them from consuming the plants, an unreasonable answer for most wild areas.
Numerous species are broadly filled in the nursery in mild, sub-tropical and tropical regions. They may likewise be developed as pruned plants. Various decorative crossovers have been created. They can be utilized in herbaceous lines, forest and bush plantings, and as deck plants. A few lilies, particularly Lilium longiflorum, structure significant cut bloom crops. These might be constrained for specific business sectors; for example, Lilium longiflorum for the Easter exchange, when it could be known as the Easter lily.
Lilies are typically planted as bulbs in the torpid season. They are best planted in a south-bound (northern side of the equator), somewhat inclining angle, in sun or part conceal, at a profundity 2½ times the tallness of the bulb (aside from Lilium candidum which ought to be planted at the surface). Most lean toward a permeable, loamy soil, and great waste is fundamental. Most species blossom in July or August (northern side of the equator). The blossoming times of specific lily species start in pre-summer, while others sprout in pre-fall or early autumn. They have contractile roots which pull the plant down to the right profundity, in this way it is smarter to establish them too shallowly than excessively profound. A dirt pH of around 6.5 is by and large protected. The dirt ought to be very much depleted, and plants should be kept watered during the developing season. A few plants have solid wiry stems, yet those with weighty blossom heads might require staking.
The accompanying lily species and cultivars presently hold the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit (affirmed 2017):
African Queen Group (VI-/a) 2002 H6
‘Casa Blanca’ (VIIb/b-c) 1993 H6
‘Fata Morgana’ (Ia/b) 2002 H6
‘Garden Party’ (VIIb/b) 2002 H6
Brilliant Splendor Group (VIb-c/a)
Lilium henryi (IXc/d) 1993 H6
Lilium mackliniae (IXc/a) 2012 H5
Lilium martagon – Turk’s cap lily (IXc/d)
Lilium pardalinum – panther lily (IXc/d)
Pink Perfection Group (VIb/a)
Lilium entertain – glorious lily, ruler’s lily (IXb/a)
Order of nursery structures
Various structures, generally cross breeds, are developed for the nursery. They change as indicated by the species and interspecific half and halves that they got from, and are characterized in the accompanying general groups:[3
Lily seed germination types
List of plants known as lily
^ Blasdale cites Bretschneider (1889), but in Bretschneider (1875), “Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the West”, p. 123, first gives the Chinese name for H. fulva as “kïm châm hōa” as according to João de Loureiro, while he himself only recognized its name as “kin huang hua” 金黃花 or as [黃花菜]; huang-hua ts’ai; ‘yellow-flower vegetable’ as they were called by Beijing merchants.
^ The informant, Pelham L. Warren, consul at Taiwan was presumably providing imports from China (main port Hankow) or Japan.
^ “not a common food” (Shizuo Tsuji [ja]).
^ The term uragoshi [ja] “straining” orthodoxically means using the “uragoshi-ki”, traditionally a sieve with a fine mesh of horse-hair instead of metal wire.
^ These could refer to essentially the same thing, except for slight difference in texture and appearance. The yuri-kinton has been described as “ogura an (sweet adzuki bean paste) core surrounded with stipples (soboro) of strained lily bulb and white adzuki (shiroazuki or shiroshōzu). A recipe for lily bulb dumplings or chakin-shibori calls for wrapping adzuki bean paste with lily bulb mashed into purée, then wrapping it in a cloth and wringing the dumpling into a ball shape.
^ Jimyōin Motoaki [ja] b. 1865 was a viscount and poet. So was his son Motonori.
^ And as discussed below, this yama-yuri was also called “hime-yuri” in earlier days.
^ The kooni yuri (小鬼百合, “lesser ogre lily”).
^ That is, not in the top three of this period.
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