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This article is about the plant family. For different utilizations, see Magnolia (disambiguation).
Magnolia
Magnolia sieboldii blossom 1.jpg
Magnolia sieboldii
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
L.
Type species
Magnolia virginiana
L.
Subgenera
Magnolia
Yulania
Gynopodium
Magnolia is a huge sort of around 210[a] blossoming plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol.

Magnolia is an old sort. Showing up before honey bees developed, the blossoms are guessed to have advanced to urge fertilization by beetles.[1] To stay away from harm from pollinating bugs, the carpels of Magnolia blossoms are incredibly tough.[2] Fossilized examples of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years prior, and of plants recognizably having a place with the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago.[3] Another part of Magnolia considered to address a hereditary state is that the bloom bud is encased in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianth parts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than particular sepals and petals. Magnolia imparts the tepal trademark to a few other blossoming plants close to the foundation of the blooming plant heredity like Amborella and Nymphaea (just as with a lot more as of late inferred plants like Lilium).

The normal scope of Magnolia species is a disjunct dispersion, with a primary place in east and southeast Asia and an optional focus in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and a few animal groups in South America.

Substance
1 Description
2 Etymology
3 Uses
3.1 Horticultural employments
3.2 Culinary employments
3.3 Traditional medication
3.4 Timber
3.5 Other employments
4 Chemical mixtures and bioeffects
5 Culture
5.1 Symbols
5.2 Arts
5.2.1 Film and TV
5.2.2 Music
5.2.3 Literature
5.2.4 Visual expressions
6 Taxonomy
6.1 History
6.1.1 Early
6.1.2 Recent
6.2 Subdivision
6.2.1 Subgenus Magnolia
6.2.1.1 Section Magnolia
6.2.1.2 Section Gwillimia
6.2.1.2.1 Subsection Gwillimia
6.2.1.2.2 Subsection Blumiana
6.2.1.3 Section Talauma
6.2.1.3.1 Subsection Talauma
6.2.1.3.2 Subsection Dugandiodendron
6.2.1.3.3 Subsection Cubenses
6.2.1.4 Section Manglietia
6.2.1.5 Section Kmeria
6.2.1.6 Section Rhytidospermum
6.2.1.6.1 Subsection Rhytidospermum
6.2.1.6.2 Subsection Oyama
6.2.1.7 Section Auriculata
6.2.1.8 Section Macrophylla
6.2.2 Subgenus Yulania
6.2.2.1 Section Yulania
6.2.2.1.1 Subsection Yulania
6.2.2.1.2 Subsection Tulipastrum
6.2.2.2 Section Michelia
6.2.2.2.1 Subsection Michelia
6.2.2.2.2 Subsection Elmerrillia
6.2.2.2.3 Subsection Maingola
6.2.2.2.4 Subsection Aromadendron
6.2.3 Subgenus Gynopodium
6.2.3.1 Section Gynopodium
6.2.3.2 Section Manglietiastrum
7 See moreover
8 Notes
9 References
9.1 Bibliography
10 External connections
Depiction
Sound system picture
Left edge
Right edge
Magnoliafruitopen.JPG
Equal view (Stereogram guide parallel.png)
Cross-eye view (Stereogram guide cross-eyed.png)
Mature magnolia organic product simply beginning to open, with a couple of seeds noticeable

Magnolia seeds and natural product on a tree in northern Argentina
Magnolias are spreading, evergreen or deciduous trees or bushes, portrayed by huge fragrant blossoms which might be bowl-molded or star-formed, in shades of white, pink, purple, green or yellow. In deciduous species the sprouts regularly show up before the leaves, in Spring. Cone-like organic products are regularly delivered in Autumn.[4]

Likewise with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9-15 tepals in at least 3 whorls. The blossoms are sexually open with various adnate carpels and stamens are organized in a winding manner on the stretched container. The natural product dehisces along the dorsal stitches of the carpels. The dust is monocolpate, and the incipient organism advancement is of the Polygonum type.

Taxonomists, including James E. Dandy in 1927, have since a long time ago had an interest in noticing products of Magnoliaceae and have frequently utilized the distinctions, or saw contrasts, in natural product characters to legitimize frameworks for classification.[5]

Historical background
Charles Plumier (1646-1704) depicted a blooming tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera,[6] giving it the name Magnolia, after the French botanist Pierre Magnol.

Magnolia × soulangeana
Employments

Blooming Magnolia figo ‘Purple Queen’

M. × wieseneri
Plant employments
Star magnolia from greenhouses, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Star magnolia from greenhouses, Halifax, Nova Scotia
As a general rule, the variety Magnolia has drawn in green interest. Some, like the bush M. stellata (star magnolia) and the tree M. × soulangeana (saucer magnolia) bloom very from the get-go in the spring, before the leaves open. Others blossom in pre-summer or late-spring, including M. virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) and M. grandiflora (southern magnolia).

Hybridisation has been monstrously fruitful in joining the best parts of various species to give plants which bloom at a previous age than the parent species, just as having more great blossoms. One of the most well known nursery magnolias, M. × soulangeana, is a half and half of M. liliiflora and M. denudata.

In the eastern United States, five local species are oftentimes in development: M. acuminata (as an overhanging tree), M. grandiflora, M. virginiana, M. tripetala, and M. macrophylla. The last two species should be established where high breezes are not an incessant issue in light of the huge size of their leaves.

Culinary employments
The blossoms of numerous species are viewed as consumable. In pieces of England, the petals of M. grandiflora are salted and utilized as a fiery fixing. In a few Asian cooking styles, the buds are salted and used to enhance rice and fragrance tea. In Japan, the youthful leaves and blossom buds of Magnolia hypoleuca are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. More established leaves are made into a powder and utilized as preparing; dried, entire leaves are put on a charcoal brazier and loaded up with miso, leeks, daikon, and shiitake, and seared. There is a kind of miso which is prepared with magnolia, hoba miso.[7][8]

In pieces of Japan, the leaves of M. obovata are utilized for wrapping food and preparing dishes.

Conventional medication

Magnolia tree in full sprout

Magnolia tree in Kenosha

Magnolia tree in the Fall.
The bark and bloom buds of M. officinalis have for some time been utilized in customary Chinese medication, where they are known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata, has been utilized in a comparative manner.[9][10]

Lumber
The cucumbertree, M. acuminata, develops to enormous size and is reaped as a lumber tree in northeastern US woods. Its wood is sold as “yellow poplar” alongside that of the tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera. The Fraser magnolia, M. fraseri, additionally accomplishes sufficient size here and there to be reaped, too.

Different employments
Magnolias are utilized as food plants by the hatchlings of a few Lepidoptera animal groups, including the goliath panther moth.

Synthetic mixtures and bioeffects
The sweet-smelling bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol.[11][12][13][14][15][16] Magnolol[17] and honokiol[18] enact the atomic receptor peroxisome proliferator-actuated receptor gamma.

Culture
Images
White or Yulan magnolia (subgenus Yulania) is the authority blossom of the Chinese city Shanghai.
Magnolia grandiflora is the authority state blossom of the two Mississippi and Louisiana. The bloom’s overflow in Mississippi is reflected in its epithet of “Magnolia State” and the state banner. The magnolia is likewise the authority state tree of Mississippi. One of the many monikers for the city of Houston is “Magnolia City”. All things considered, magnolias have been related with the Southern United States.
Magnolia sieboldii is the public blossom of North Korea.
Magnolia sieboldii is the authority blossom of Gangnam.
Expressions
Film and TV
Paul Thomas Anderson made a film named Magnolia.
Steel Magnolias is a 1989 American parody dramatization film about the bond among a gathering of ladies from Louisiana, who can be pretty much as lovely as magnolias, yet are pretty much as extreme as steel. The name ‘magnolia’ explicitly alludes to a magnolia tree concerning which they are contending at the beginning.[19]
Music
The folksong “Bungong Jeumpa”, from Aceh, Indonesia, implies magnolia blossom.
The French melody by Salvatore Adamo “Les collines de Rabiah” during the 1970s portrays the magnolia trees in Beirut and calls for harmony.
The Grateful Dead recorded a tune named “Sugar Magnolia” that was first delivered on the 1970 collection American Beauty. The tune made its live presentation on June 7, 1970, at the Fillmore West in San Francisco. The semiofficial 1972 Dead film Sunshine Daydream has its title taken from the tune’s coda area.
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers second studio collection You’re Gonna Get It! incorporates a track called “Magnolia”, composed by Tom Petty.
J.J. Cale (1938-2013) composed a tune about a lady named Magnolia, which has been covered by Poco, Beck and Lucinda Williams.
“The Scent of Magnolia” is the principal track in David Sylvian’s gathering collection, Everything and Nothing.
In 2003, Songs: Ohia delivered The Magnolia Electric Co. This was the last delivery under that venture’s name for Jason Molina prior to renaming his band Magnolia Electric Co. after the collection.
“Magnolia” is the fifth track on Australian non mainstream rock bunch Gang of Youths’ introduction collection, The Positions.
“Magnolia” is a hit melody by rapper Playboi Carti
In his tune named “Wed Me” Thomas Rhett specifies the magnolia bloom.
In his tune named “Exciting ride” Danny Vera makes reference to the magnolia blossom.
“The Sweet Magnolia Tree” is the eighth track on Doug Wamble’s 2003 CD Country Libations.
Vocalist musician Brian Fallon of The Gaslight Anthem included “Honey Magnolia” to his first performance debut collection named Painkillers delivered in M

See also[edit]
List of AGM magnolias
Notes[edit]
^ The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera Talauma, Dugandiodendron, Manglietia, Michelia, Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, Magnolia s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato: ‘in a broad sense’, as opposed to s.s. = sensu stricto: ‘in a narrow sense’). The genus Magnolia s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section Nomenclature and classification in this article.
^ Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier’s name was not a binomen and moreover published before Species Plantarum, so it has no status. The first binomen published after 1753 was Lamarck’s Annona dodecapetala (1786). Magnolia plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia linguifolia (1822).
^ Magnolia glauca has the same type specimen as Magnolia virginiana and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia). Var. fœtida was renamed Magnolia grandiflora, which is legitimate as the epithet fœtida only has priority in its rank of variety. Magnolia grandiflora is the southern magnolia. Magnolia tripetala (umbrella magnolia) and Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree) are still recognized as species.
^ Under these names the species were described by Desrousseaux in Lamarck’s Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were found in a work of the French naturalist P.J. Buc’hoz, Plantes nouvellement découvertes (1779), under the names Lassonia heptapeta and Lassonia quinquepeta. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on Magnolia denudata had to be named Magnolia heptapeta, Magnolia liliiflora should be changed into Magnolia quinquepeta. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc’hoz’s names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc’hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable.
^ These species were published as Liriodendron coco and Liriodendron figo by J. de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) and later (1817) transferred to Magnolia by A. P. de Candolle. Magnolia figo was soon after transferred to the genus Michelia.
^ In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in The genera of Magnoliaceae, Kew Bulletin 1927: 257–264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22: 89–109; in 2004 even 16, in Magnolias of China. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries.
^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia pyramidata.
^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia ashei.
^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia dealbata.
References[edit]
^ Peigler, Richard (1988). “A review of pollination of Magnolias by beetles, with a collecting survey made in the Carolinas” (PDF). Magnolia. 24 (45): 1–7.
^ Bernhardt, P. (2000). “Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms” (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 222 (1–4): 293–320. doi:10.1007/bf00984108. S2CID 25387251. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-23.
^ Crane, P.R. (1988). “The phylogenetic position and fossil history of the Magnoliaceae”. In Hunt, David R. (ed.). Magnolias and their allies: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, U.K., 12-13 April 1996. Milbourne Port. p. 21. ISBN 9780951723487. OCLC 40781614.
^ Brickell, Christopher (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants (3rd ed.). United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 661. ISBN 9781405332965.
^ https://www.magnoliasociety.org/resources/Journal/Images/1986-2011_ISSUES_41-90/ISSUE%2072_09-21_THOSE%20AMAZING%20MAGNOLIA%20FRUITS_RICHARD%20B.%20FIGLAR.pdf
^
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a b Plumier, C. (1703) Nova plantarum Americanarum genera. Paris. [New genera of American plants].
^ Facciola, S. (1990). A Source Book of Edible Plants. Cornucopia. Vol. I. Kampong Publications. ISBN 0-9628087-0-9.
^ Facciola, S. (1998). A Source Book of Edible Plants. Cornucopia. Vol. II. Kampong Publications. ISBN 0-9628087-2-5.
^ “Magnolia Flower (xin yi hua)”. www.acupuncturetoday.com. 2019-02-01. Retrieved 2021-09-04.
^ Poivre, Mélanie; Duez, Pierre (March 2017). “Biological activity and toxicity of the Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson (Houpo) and its constituents”. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. 18 (3): 194–214. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1600299. ISSN 1673-1581. PMC 5365644. PMID 28271656.
^ Han, H.; Jung, J.K.; Han, S.B.; Nam, S.Y.; Oh, K.W.; Hong, J.T. (2011). “Anxiolytic-like effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol isolated from magnolia officinalis through enhancement of GABAergic transmission and chloride influx”. Journal of Medicinal Food. 14 (7–8): 724–731. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.1111. PMID 21501091.
^ Kalman, D.S.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, R.; Schwartz, H.I.; Krieger, D.R.; Garrison, R. (2008). “Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial”. Nutrition Journal. 7 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-11. PMC 2359758. PMID 18426577.
^ Ma, L.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liang, X.; Luo, Y.; Zhu, W.; Wang, T.; Peng, M.; Li, S.; Jie, S.; Peng, A.; Wei, Y.; Chen, L. (2011). “Structural modification of honokiol, a biphenyl occurring in magnolia officinalis: The evaluation of honokiol analogues as inhibitors of angiogenesis and for their cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 54 (19): 6469–6481. doi:10.1021/jm200830u. PMID 21853991.
^ Fried, L.E.; Arbiser, J.L. (2009). “Honokiol, a multifunctional antiangiogenic and antitumor agent”. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11 (5): 1139–1148. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2440. PMC 2842137. PMID 19203212.
^ Hu J.; Chen L.-J.; Liu L.; Chen X.; Chen P.; Yang G.-L.; Hou W.-L.; Tang M.-H.; Zhang F.; Wang X.-H.; Zhao X.; Wei Y.-Q. (2008). “Liposomal honokiol, a potent anti-angiogenesis agent, in combination with radiotherapy produces a synergistic antitumor efficacy without increasing toxicity”. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 40 (6): 617–628. doi:10.3858/emm.2008.40.6.617. PMC 2679338. PMID 19116447.
^ Lee YJ, Lee YM, Lee CK, Jung JK, Han SB, Hong JT (2011). “Therapeutic applications of compounds in the Magnolia family”. Pharmacol. Ther. 130 (2): 157–176. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.010. PMID 21277893.
^ Fakhrudin, N.; Ladurner, A.; Atanasov, A.G.; Heiss, E.H.; Baumgartner, L.; Markt, P.; Schuster, D.; Ellmerer, E.P.; Wolber, G.; Rollinger, J.M.; Stuppner, H.; Dirsch, V.M. (Apr 2010). “Computer-aided discovery, validation, and mechanistic characterization of novel neolignan activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma”. Mol. Pharmacol. 77 (4): 559–66. doi:10.1124/mol.109.062141. PMC 3523390. PMID 20064974.
^ Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH (October 2013). “Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects. 1830 (10): 4813–4819. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.021. PMC 3790966. PMID 23811337.
^ Scanlon, J. (2007). “If my husband calls I’m not here: The beauty parlor as real and representational female space”. Feminist Studies. 33: 2.
^ Caro, Robert A. (2012). The Passage of Power. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Vol. 4. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 348.
^ Maloney, Sarah. “Sarah Maloney”.
^ Maloney, Sarah (2014). “Sarah Maloney: First Flowers”. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
^ Dillenius, J.J. (1732), Hortus Elthamensis, seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornamentissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard. London [The garden of Eltham, or rather about the rare plants that the most distinguished and prominent man Jacob Sherard grows in his garden in Eltham in Kent].
^ Catesby, M. (1730), The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and plants, Vol. 1. London.
^ Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1786), Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome second: 127. Paris.
^ Magnolia kobus only received its name in 1814, when it was validly published by A.P. de Candolle. There has been much confusion about earlier attempts to validly publish this species, especially because descriptions and type specimens did not match.
^ Azuma, H.; Thien, L.B.; Kawano, S. (1999). “Molecular phylogeny of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) inferred from cpDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents”. Journal of Plant Research. 112 (1107): 291–306. doi:10.1007/pl00013885. S2CID 206862607.
^ Azuma, H.; García-Franco, J.G.; Rico-Gray, V.; Thien, L.B. (2001). “Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions”. American Journal of Botany. 88 (12): 2275–2285. doi:10.2307/3558389. JSTOR 3558389. PMID 21669660.
^ Kim, S.; et al. (2001). “Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhF sequences”. American Journal of Botany. 88 (4): 717–728. doi:10.2307/2657073. JSTOR 2657073. PMID 11302859.
^ Figlar, R.B. (2000), Proleptic branch initiation in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania provides basis for combinations in subfamily Magnolioideae. In: Liu Yu-hu et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae: 14–25, Science Press, Beijing.
^ 4. Magnoliaceae, Flora of China
^ Figlar, Richard B. (April 2012). “Magnolia Classification”. Magnolia Society International. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
^ Serrano, Marcelo José; Grajeda-Estrada, Rafael; Villalobos, Andrés; Álvarez-Ruano, María Renée; Vázquez-García, J. Antonio (2020-08-04). “Magnolia poqomchi , a new species of subsection Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) from San Cristóbal Verapaz, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala”. Phytotaxa. 454 (4): 231–243. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.454.4.1. ISSN 1179-3163.
^ “Magnolia platyphylla”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ “Magnolia pubescens”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ Brambach, F.; Nooteboom, H.P.; Culmsee, H. (2013). “Magnolia sulawesiana described, and a key to the species of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) occurring in Sulawesi”. Blumea – Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 58 (3): 271–276. doi:10.3767/000651913X676817.
^ “Magnolia tsiampacca”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ “Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. mollis”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ “Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ “Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. glaberrima”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ “Magnolia vrieseana”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 7 August 2015.