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Tagetes
Marigolds
Tagetes erecta chendumalli chedi.jpg
Tagetes erecta,
Mexican marigold
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Supertribe: Helianthodae
Tribe: Tageteae
Genus: Tagetes
L.[1]
Equivalents
Diglossus Cass.
Enalcida Cass.
Solenotheca Nutt.
Vilobia Strother
Tagetes/tæˈdʒiːtiːz/is a genus[2] of yearly or lasting, for the most part herbaceous plants in the sunflower family Asteraceae. They are among a few gatherings of plants referred to in English as marigolds. The variety Tagetes was depicted via Carl Linnaeus in 1753.[3][4]

The plants are local to the Americas, developing normally from the southwestern United States into South America, yet a few animal varieties have become naturalized all over the planet. One animal varieties, T. minuta, is viewed as a toxic obtrusive plant in some areas.[2]

Substance
1 Description
2 Nomenclature
3 Cultivation and employments
4 Cultural importance
4.1 Tagetes lucida
4.2 Tagetes minuta
4.3 Tagetes – different species
5 Species
6 Gallery
7 References
8 External connections
Portrayal
Tagetes species differ in size from 0.1 to 2.2 m tall. Most species have pinnate green leaves. Sprouts normally happen in brilliant, orange, yellow, and white tones, frequently with maroon features. Botanical heads are normally (1-) to 4-6 cm distance across, by and large with both beam florets and plate florets. In cultivation, they will quite often be planted as annuals, albeit the enduring species are acquiring ubiquity. They have stringy roots.[citation needed]

Contingent upon the species, Tagetes species fill well in practically any kind of soil. Most green determinations fill best in soil with great seepage, and a few cultivars are known to have great resilience to drought.[5]

Classification
The Latin Tagētes gets from the name of the Etruscan Tages, brought into the world from the furrowing of the earth.[6] It probably alludes to the straightforwardness with which plants of this variety come out every year either by the seeds created in the earlier year, or by the stems which regrow from the stump currently in place.[7]

The normal name in English, marigold, is gotten from Mary’s gold, a name initially applied to a comparative plant local to Europe, Calendula officinalis.[citation needed]

The most ordinarily developed assortments of Tagetes are referred to differently as African marigolds (as a rule alluding to cultivars and cross breeds of Tagetes erecta), or French marigolds (as a rule alluding to mixtures and cultivars of Tagetes patula, a large number of which were created in France). The purported seal marigolds are cross breeds got for the most part from Tagetes tenuifolia.[citation needed]

Development and employments

Tagetes patula blossoms
Contingent upon the species, marigold foliage has a musky, sharp aroma, however a few assortments have been reproduced to be scentless. It is said to discourage a few normal bug bugs, just as nematodes[citation needed]. Tagetes species – remarkably T. patula – are consequently regularly utilized in buddy planting for tomato, eggplant, stew pepper, tobacco, and potato. Because of antibacterial thiophenes oozed by the roots, Tagetes ought not be planted close to any vegetable crop.[8] Some of the enduring species are deer-, hare , rat and javelina or peccary-resistant.[8]

T. minuta (khakibush or huacatay), initially from South America, has been utilized as a wellspring of medicinal balm for the fragrance and industry known as tagette or “marigold oil”, and as a flavourant in the food and tobacco ventures. It is generally developed in South Africa, where the species is likewise a helpful trailblazer plant in the recovery of upset land.[citation needed]

Gonepteryx rhamni sucking nectar
The florets of Tagetes erecta are wealthy in the orange-yellow carotenoid lutein and are utilized as a food tone (INS number E161b) in the European Union for food sources, for example, pasta, vegetable oil, margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, prepared merchandise, candy parlor, dairy items, frozen yogurt, yogurt, citrus juice and mustard. In the United States, in any case, the powders and concentrates are just supported as colorants in poultry feed.[citation needed]

Marigolds are recorded as a food plant for a few Lepidoptera caterpillars including the speck moth, and a nectar hotspot for different butterflies and honey bees. They are regularly essential for butterfly cultivating plantings. In the wild, numerous species are pollinated by beetles.[8]

Social importance
Tagetes lucida
The species Tagetes lucida, known as pericón, is utilized to set up a sweetish, anise-enhanced restorative tea in Mexico. It is likewise utilized as a culinary spice in many warm environments, as a substitute for tarragon, and presented in the nursery as “Texas tarragon” or “Mexican mint marigold”.[citation needed]

Tagetes minuta
Tagetes minuta, local to southern South America, is a tall, upstanding marigold plant with little blossoms utilized as a culinary spice in Peru, Ecuador, and portions of Chile and Bolivia, where it is called by the Incan expression huacatay. The glue is utilized to make the well known potato dish called ocopa. Having both “green” and “yellow/orange” takes note of, the taste and smell of new T. minuta resembles a combination of sweet basil, tarragon, mint and citrus. It is additionally utilized as a therapeutic tea for gastrointestinal protests and explicitly against nematodes.[9][10]

Tagetes – different species

Marigolds embellishing a grave for Day of the Dead in Mexico
The marigold was viewed as the blossom of the dead in pre-Hispanic Mexico, corresponding to the lily in Europe, is still broadly utilized in the Day of the Dead celebrations.[citation needed]

It is constantly sold in the business sectors for every day adores and ceremonies. The marigold is likewise generally developed in India and Thailand, especially the species T. erecta, T. patula, and T. tenuifolia. Immense amounts of marigolds are utilized in laurels and adornment for weddings, celebrations, and strict occasions. Marigold development is broadly seen in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh (for Deepawali market[11]) provinces of India.

In Ukraine, chornobryvtsi (T. erecta, T. patula, and the seal marigold, l. tenuifolia) are viewed as one of the public images, and are frequently referenced in tunes, sonnets, and tales.[citation needed]

Species
Acknowledged species[12]
Tagetes apetala
Tagetes arenicola
Tagetes argentina Cabrera
Tagetes biflora Cabrera
Tagetes campanulata Griseb.
Tagetes daucoides
Tagetes elliptica Sm.
Tagetes elongata
Tagetes epapposa
Tagetes erecta L. – African marigold, Aztec marigold
Tagetes filifolia Lag.
Tagetes foeniculacea
Tagetes foetidissima DC.
Tagetes hartwegii Greenm.
Tagetes iltisiana Rydb.
Tagetes inclusa
Tagetes lacera
Tagetes laxa Cabrera
Tagetes lemmonii A.Gray – Mt. Lemmon marigold, Mexican marigold[13]
Tagetes linifolia
Tagetes lucida Cav. – Mexican mint marigold, Texas tarragon
Tagetes mandonii
Tagetes mendocina Phil.
Tagetes micrantha Cav. – licorice marigold
Tagetes microglossa
Tagetes minima
Tagetes minuta L. – wild marigold
Tagetes moorei
Tagetes mulleri S.F.Blake
Tagetes multiflora Kunth
Tagetes nelsonii Greenm.
Tagetes oaxacana
Tagetes osteni
Tagetes palmeri
Tagetes parryi A.Gray
Tagetes patula L. – French marigold
Tagetes perezii Cabrera
Tagetes praetermissa
Tagetes pringlei S.Watson
Tagetes pusilla
Tagetes riojana M.Ferraro
Tagetes rupestris Cabrera
Tagetes stenophylla B.L.Rob.
Tagetes subulata Cerv.
Tagetes subvillosa
Tagetes tenuifolia Cav. – seal marigold
Tagetes terniflora Kunth
Tagetes triradiata
Tagetes verticillata Lag. and Rodr.
Tagetes zypaquirensis Humb. and Bonpl.

References[edit]
^ “Genus: Tagetes L.” Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2011-01-06. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
^
Jump up to:
a b Soule, J. A. 1996. Infrageneric Systematics of Tagetes. Pgs. 435-443 in Compositae: Systematics, Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew 1994, Vol. I, Eds. D.J.N. Hind & H.J. Beentje.
^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 887 in Latin
^ “Tropicos | Name – !Tagetes L.” www.tropicos.org.
^ Cicevan R, Al Hassan M, Sestras AF, Prohens J, Vicente O, Sestras RE, Boscaiu M. (2016) Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae) PeerJ 4:e2133 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2133
^ Everett, Thomas H. (1982). The New York Botanical Garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture. Taylor & Francis. p. 3290. ISBN 978-0-8240-7240-7.
^ Filippi, Olivier (2007). Pour un jardin sans arrosage (For a garden without irrigation) (in French). Arles: Actes Sud. p. 188. ISBN 978-2-7427-6730-4.
^
Jump up to:
a b c Soule, J. A. 1993. Biosystematics of Tagetes (Compositae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas.
^ Weaver, David K.; Wells, Carl D.; Dunkel, Florence V.; Bertsch, Wolfgang; Sing, Sharlene E.; Sriharan, Shobha (1 December 1994). “Insecticidal Activity of Floral, Foliar, and Root Extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) Against Adult Mexican Bean Weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)”. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87 (6): 1718–1725. doi:10.1093/jee/87.6.1718.
^ Soule, J. A. 1993. Tagetes minuta: A Potential New Herb from South America. Pgs. 649-654 in New Crops, Proceedings of the New Crops Conference 1993, Eds. J. Janick & J. E. Simon.
^ Gupta, Y.C.; Y. D. Sharma; N.S. Pathania (2002-09-09). “Let the flower of gods bless you”. The Tribune, Chandigarh, India (web site). Retrieved 2007-09-01.
^ The Plant List, search for Tagetes
^ “Plants Profile for Tagetes lemmonii (Lemmon’s marigold)”. plants.usda.gov.