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“Milkweed” diverts here. For different utilizations, see Milkweed (disambiguation).
Not to be mistaken for Asclepius.
Asclepias syriaca (normal milkweed) showing blossoms and plastic
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Asclepiadoideae
Tribe: Asclepiadeae
Subtribe: Asclepiadinae
Genus: Asclepias
Type species
Asclepias syriaca
Asclepias albens
Asclepias albicans
Asclepias alticola
Asclepias ameliae
Asclepias amplexicaulis
Asclepias angustifolia
Asclepias arenaria
Asclepias asperula
Asclepias asperula subsp. asperula
Asclepias asperula subsp. capricornu
Asclepias atroviolacea
Asclepias aurea
Asclepias auriculata
Asclepias barjoniifolia
Asclepias boliviensis
Asclepias brachystephana
Asclepias brevipes
Asclepias californica
Asclepias californica subsp. californica
Asclepias californica subsp. greenei
Asclepias candida
Asclepias aff. candida Fishbein 6347
Asclepias cinerea
Asclepias circinalis
Asclepias connivens
Asclepias cordifolia
Asclepias coulteri
Asclepias crispa
Asclepias cryptoceras
Asclepias cryptoceras subsp. cryptoceras
Asclepias cryptoceras subsp. davisii
Asclepias cucullata
Asclepias cultriformis
Asclepias curassavica
Asclepias curtissii
Asclepias cutleri
Asclepias densiflora
Asclepias disparilis
Asclepias eastwoodiana
Asclepias elata
Asclepias elegantula
Asclepias emoryi
Asclepias engelmanniana
Asclepias eriocarpa
Asclepias erosa
Asclepias exaltata
Asclepias fascicularis
Asclepias feayi
Asclepias flava
Asclepias foliosa
Asclepias fournieri
Asclepias fulva
Asclepias gentryi
Asclepias gibba
Asclepias glaucescens
Asclepias grandirandii
Asclepias hallii
Asclepias hirtella
Asclepias humistrata
Asclepias hypoleuca
Asclepias inaequalis
Asclepias incarnata
Asclepias incarnata subsp. incarnata
Asclepias incarnata subsp. pulchra
Asclepias involucrata
Asclepias jaliscana
Asclepias jorgeana
Asclepias labriformis
Asclepias lanceolata
Asclepias lanuginosa
Asclepias latifolia
Asclepias lemmonii
Asclepias leptopus
Asclepias linaria
Asclepias linearis
Asclepias longifolia
Asclepias lynchiana
Asclepias macropus
Asclepias macrosperma
Asclepias macrotis
Asclepias macroura
Asclepias masonii
Asclepias mcvaughii
Asclepias meadii
Asclepias melantha
Asclepias mellodora
Asclepias mellodora var. mellodora
Asclepias mexicana
Asclepias michauxii
Asclepias mirifica
Asclepias multicaulis
Asclepias nivea
Asclepias notha
Asclepias nummularia
Asclepias nyctaginifolia
Asclepias obovata
Asclepias oenotheroides
Asclepias otarioides
Asclepias ovalifolia
Asclepias ovata
Asclepias pedicellata
Asclepias pellucida
Asclepias perennis
Asclepias phenax
Asclepias pilgeriana
Asclepias praemorsa
Asclepias pratensis
Asclepias pringlei
Asclepias prostrata
Asclepias puberula
Asclepias pumila
Asclepias purpurascens
Asclepias quadrifolia
Asclepias quinquedentata
Asclepias randii
Asclepias rosea
Asclepias rubra
Asclepias ruthiae
Asclepias sanjuanensis
Asclepias scaposa
Asclepias schaffneri
Asclepias scheryi
Asclepias senecionifolia
Asclepias similis
Asclepias solanoana
Asclepias solstitialis
Asclepias speciosa
Asclepias standleyi
Asclepias stathmostelmoides
Asclepias stellifera
Asclepias stenophylla
Asclepias subaphylla
Asclepias subulata
Asclepias subverticillata
Asclepias sullivantii
Asclepias syriaca
Asclepias texana
Asclepias tomentosa
Asclepias tuberosa
Asclepias tuberosa subsp. inside
Asclepias tuberosa subsp. rolfsii
Asclepias tuberosa subsp. tuberosa
Asclepias uncialis
Asclepias variegata
Asclepias verticillata
Asclepias vestita
Asclepias vestita subsp. parishii
Asclepias vestita subsp. vestita
Asclepias vinosa
Asclepias viridiflora
Asclepias viridis
Asclepias viridula
Asclepias virletii
Asclepias welshii
Asclepias woodii
Asclepias woodsoniana
Asclepias zanthodacryon
Acerates Elliott
Anantherix Nutt.
Asclepiodella Small
Asclepiodora A.Gray
Biventraria Small
Oxypteryx Greene
Podostemma Greene
Podostigma Elliott (likely)
Schizonotus A.Gray
Solanoa Greene
Trachycalymma (K.Schum.) Bullock (conceivable)
Asclepias is a variety of herbaceous, enduring, blossoming plants known as milkweeds, named for their plastic, a smooth substance containing heart glycosides named cardenolides, oozed where cells are damaged.[3][4][5] Most species are poisonous to people and numerous different species, essentially because of the presence of cardenolides, despite the fact that, similarly as with many such plants, there are species that feed upon them (for example leaves) and from them (for example nectar). The sort contains more than 200 species conveyed comprehensively across Africa, North America, and South America.[6] It recently had a place with the family Asclepiadaceae, which is currently named the subfamily Asclepiadoideae of the dogbane family, Apocynaceae.

The class was officially portrayed via Carl Linnaeus in 1753,[7] who named it after Asclepius, the Greek divine force of healing.[8]

1 Milkweed blossoms
2 Ecology
3 Uses
4 Species
4.1 Formerly characterized species
5 References
6 External connections
Milkweed blossoms

Seed units of an Asclepias

Asclepias syriaca seed units, upper picture from August and lower from December

Milkweed sprout, a couple of days subsequent to planting

Compound design of oleandrin, one of the cardiovascular glycosides
Individuals from the family Asclepias produce the absolute most complex blossoms in the plant realm, practically identical to orchids in intricacy. Five petals reflex in reverse uncovering a gynostegium encompassed by a five-layer crown. The crown is made out of a five-matched hood-and-horn structure with the hood going about as a sheath for the inward horn. Organs holding pollinia are found between the hoods. The size, shape and shade of the horns and hoods are frequently significant distinguishing attributes for species in the class Asclepias.[9]

Fertilization in this variety is refined in a surprising way. Dust is assembled into complex designs called pollinia (or “dust sacs”), rather than being individual grains or quadruplicates, as is common for most plants. The feet or mouthparts of bloom visiting bugs, for example, honey bees, wasps and butterflies, slip into one of the five cuts in each blossom shaped by contiguous anthers. The foundations of the pollinia then, at that point, precisely connect to the bug, so a couple of dust sacs can be pulled free when the pollinator takes off, expecting the bug is adequately huge enough to create the essential pulling power (on the off chance that not, the bug might become caught and die).[10] Pollination is affected by the opposite methodology, where one of the pollinia becomes caught inside the anther cut. Huge bodied hymenopterans are the most widely recognized and best pollinators, representing more than half of all Asclepias pollination,[11] while ruler butterflies are helpless pollinators of milkweed.[4]

Male Pepsis grossa, a regular milkweed-pollinating wasp

Bumble bee on impala horn (Asclepias asperula) showing pollinia connected to legs
Asclepias species produce their seeds in units named follicles. The seeds, which are organized in covering lines, bear a group of white, smooth, fiber like hairs known as the coma[12] (regularly alluded to by different names like pappus, “floss”, “crest”, or “silk”). The follicles mature and part open, and the seeds, each conveyed by its extreme lethargies, are passed up the breeze. Some, yet not all, milkweeds likewise duplicate by clonal (or vegetative) proliferation.

American milkweeds are a significant nectar hotspot for local honey bees, wasps, and other nectar-chasing bugs, however non-local bumble bees ordinarily get caught in the stigmatic cuts and die.[10][13] Milkweeds are likewise the larval food hotspot for ruler butterflies and their family members, just as an assortment of other herbivorous bugs (counting various bugs, moths, and genuine bugs) particular to benefit from the plants in spite of their substance defenses.[4]

Milkweeds utilize three essential guards to restrict harm brought about by caterpillars: hairs on the leaves (trichomes), cardenolide poisons, and plastic fluids.[14] Data from a DNA study show that, for the most part, more as of late developed milkweed species (“inferred” in plant science speech) utilize these preventive methodologies less however become quicker than older species, conceivably regrowing quicker than caterpillars can drink them.[15][16][17]

Research shows that the exceptionally high cardenolide content of Asclepias linaria lessens the effect of the Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE) parasite on the ruler butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Conversely, a few types of Asclepias are amazingly helpless wellsprings of cardenolides, for example, Asclepias fascicularis, Asclepias tuberosa, and Asclepias angustifolia.[citation needed]

Milkweeds are not filled financially in enormous scope, however the plants have had many utilizations all through human history.[4] Milkweeds have a long history of therapeutic, consistently, and military use. The Omaha individuals from Nebraska, the Menomin from Wisconsin and upper Michigan, the Dakota from Minnesota, and the Ponca individuals from Nebraska, generally utilized normal milkweed (A. syriaca) for therapeutic purposes.[citation needed]

An investigation of the insulative properties of different materials observed that milkweed floss was beated by different materials as far as protection, space, and unevenness, however it scored well when blended in with down feathers.[18] The milkweed fibers from the trance state (the “floss”) are empty and covered with wax, and have great protection characteristics. During World War II, in excess of 5,000 t (5,500 short huge loads) of milkweed floss was gathered in the United States as a substitute for kapok.[19][20] Milkweed is developed monetarily as a hypoallergenic filling for pillows[21] and as protection for winter coats.[22] Asclepias is otherwise called “Silk of America

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a b “Taxon: Asclepias L.” Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-03-13. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
^ “Asclepias”. NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
^ Singh, B.; Rastogi, R.P. (1970). “Cardenolides-glycosides and genins”. Phytochemistry. 9 (2): 315–331. doi:10.1016/s0031-9422(00)85141-9.
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a b c d e f Agrawal, Anurag (2017-03-07). Monarchs and Milkweed: A Migrating Butterfly, a Poisonous Plant, and Their Remarkable Story of Coevolution. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400884766.
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a b Agrawal, Anurag A.; Petschenka, Georg; Bingham, Robin A.; Weber, Marjorie G.; Rasmann, Sergio (2012-04-01). “Toxic cardenolides: chemical ecology and coevolution of specialized plant–herbivore interactions”. New Phytologist. 194 (1): 28–45. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04049.x. ISSN 1469-8137. PMID 22292897.
^ “Asclepias L.” Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
^ “Asclepias”. International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (29 November 1999). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8493-2673-8. Latin asclepias and Greek asklepias for the common swallowwort; Asclepius, Greek god of medicine, the worship of Asclepius was centered in Epidaurus. See W.K.C. Guthrie, The Greeks and Their Gods, 1950; Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum. 214. 1753 and Genera Plantarum. Ed. 5. 102. 1754.
^ Milkweed Flower Morphology
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a b Robertson, C. (1887) Insect relations of certain asclepiads. I. Botanical Gazette 12: 207–216
^ Ollerton, J. & S. Liede. 1997. Pollination systems in the Asclepiadaceae: a survey and preliminary analysis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (1997), 62: 593–610.
^ Sacchi, C.F. (1987) Variability in dispersal ability of Common Milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, seeds, Oikos Vol. 49, pp. 191–198
^ Frost, S.W. (1965). “Insects and pollinia”. Ecology. 46 (4): 556–558. doi:10.2307/1934896. JSTOR 1934896.
^ Agrawal, Anurag A.; Ali, Jared G.; Rasmann, Sergio; Fishbein, Mark; (ORCID 0000-0003-3099-4387 GS 80G72B0AAAAJ) (2015). “4 – Macroevolutionary Trends in the Defense of Milkweeds against Monarchs – Latex, Cardenolides, and Tolerance of Herbivory”. In Oberhauser, Karen (ed.). Monarchs in a changing world : biology and conservation of an iconic butterfly. Ithaca London: Comstock Publishing, a division of Cornell University Press. pp. 47–59. ISBN 978-0-8014-5560-5. OCLC 918150494. {{cite book}}: |author5= has generic name (help); External link in |author5= (help)
^ Ramanujan, Krishna (Winter 2008). “Discoveries: Milkweed evolves to shrug off predation”. Northern Woodlands. 15 (4): 56.
^ Agrawal, Anurag A.; Fishbein, Mark; (ORCID 0000-0003-3099-4387 GS 80G72B0AAAAJ) (2008-07-22). “Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (29): 10057–10060. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10510057A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802368105. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2481309. PMID 18645183. {{cite journal}}: |author3= has generic name (help); External link in |author3= (help)
^ Callis-Duehl, Kristine; Vittoz, Pascal; Defossez, Emmanuel; Rasmann, Sergio; (ORCID 0000-0002-3120-6226) (2016-12-20). “Community-level relaxation of plant defenses against herbivores at high elevation”. Plant Ecology. Springer. 218 (3): 291–304. doi:10.1007/s11258-016-0688-4. ISSN 1385-0237. S2CID 34282179. {{cite journal}}: External link in |author5= (help)
^ McCullough, Elizabeth A. (April 1991). “Evaluation of Milkweed Floss as an Insulative Fill Material”. Textile Research Journal. 61 (4): 203–210. doi:10.1177/004051759106100403. S2CID 17783131.
^ Hauswirth, Katherine (2008-10-26). “The Heroic Milkweed”. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
^ Wykes, Gerald (2014-02-04). “A Weed Goes to War, and Michigan Provides the Ammunition”. MLive Media Group. Michigan History Magazine. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
^ Evangelista, R.L. (2007). “Milkweed seed wing removal to improve oil extraction”. Industrial Crops and Products. 25 (2): 210–217. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2006.10.002.
^ Bernstein, Jaela (2016-10-13). “How a Quebec company used a weed to create a one-of-a-kind winter coat”. CBC News. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
^ Charles Sigisbert, Sonnini (1810). Traité de l’asclépiade.
^ Choi, Hyung Min; Cloud, Rinn M. (1992). “Natural sorbents in oil spill clean-up”. Environmental Science & Technology. 26 (4): 772. Bibcode:1992EnST…26..772C. doi:10.1021/es00028a016.
^ “La soie d’Amérique passe en production industrielle”. Radio Canada. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
^ “Milkweed touted as oil-spill super-sucker — with butterfly benefits”. 2 December 2014.
^ Johnson, Glen A (2019). Milkweed of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Amazon KDP. p. 7. ISBN 9781081170653.
^ Beckett, R. E. (Ralph Edwin); Stitt, R. S. (Robert S.) (1935). “The desert milkweed (Asclepias subulata) as a possible source of rubber”: 20 : ill., 23 cm.–USDA.
^ (1) “Butterfly Gardening: Introduction”. University of Kansas: Monarch Watch. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
(2) “Monarch Watch: Monarch Waystation Program”. University of Kansas, Entomology Department. Archived from the original on 18 Nov 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
(3) “Monarch Garden Plants” (PDF). San Francisco, California: Pollinator Partnership. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
^ Howard, Elizabeth; Aschen, Harlen; Davis, Andrew K. (2010). “Citizen Science Observations of Monarch Butterfly Overwintering in the Southern United States”. Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 2010: 1. doi:10.1155/2010/689301.
^ Satterfield, D. A.; Maerz, J. C.; Altizer, S (2015). “Loss of migratory behaviour increases infection risk for a butterfly host”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 282 (1801): 20141734. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.1734. PMC 4308991. PMID 25589600.
^ Majewska, Ania A.; Altizer, Sonia (16 August 2019). “Exposure to Non-Native Tropical Milkweed Promotes Reproductive Development in Migratory Monarch Butterflies”. Insects. 10 (8): 253. doi:10.3390/insects10080253. PMC 6724006. PMID 31426310.
^ (1) Pocius, Victoria M.; Debinski, Diane M.; Pleasants, John M.; Bidne, Keith G.; Hellmich, Richard L. (January 8, 2018). “Monarch butterflies do not place all of their eggs in one basket: oviposition on nine Midwestern milkweed species”. Ecosphere. Ecological Society of America (ESA). 9 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1002/ecs2.2064. Retrieved July 6, 2021 – via Wiley Online Library. In our study, the least preferred milkweed species A. tuberosa (no choice; Fig. 2) and A. verticillata (choice; Fig. 3A) both have low cardenolide levels recorded in the literature (Roeske et al. 1976, Agrawal et al. 2009, 2015, Rasmann and Agrawal 2011)
(2) Abugattas, Alonzo (3 January 2017). “Monarch Way Stations”. Capital Naturalist. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017 – via Blogger. It is the least favored by monarch caterpillars though because it has very little toxin (cardiac glycosides) in its leaves, but other butterflies and adult monarchs love it as a nectar source..
(3) “Butterfly Weed: Asclepias tuberosa” (PDF). Becker County, Minnesota: Becker Soil and Water Conservation District. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 11, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020. Unlike other milkweeds, this plant has a clear sap, and the level of toxic cardiac glycosides is consistently low (although other toxic compounds may be present)..
^ Asclepias subverticillata (A. Gray) Vail, USDA PLANTS
^ “GRIN Species Records of Asclepias”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2