“Orchid” diverts here. For different utilizations, see Orchid (disambiguation).
Worldly reach: 80-0 Ma
Late Cretaceous – Recent
Shading plate from Ernst Haeckel’s Kunstformen der Natur, 1906
Tourn. ex L.
Appropriation scope of family Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae (/ɔːrkəˈdeɪʃiː/or-kə-DAY-shee), ordinarily called the orchid family, is a different and far reaching group of blossoming plants, with sprouts that are frequently vivid and fragrant.
Alongside the Asteraceae, they are one of the two biggest groups of blossoming plants. The Orchidaceae have around 28,000 as of now acknowledged species, dispersed in around 763 genera. The assurance of which family is bigger is as yet under banter, on the grounds that checked information on the individuals from such colossal families are constantly in motion. Notwithstanding, the quantity of orchid species is almost equivalent to the quantity of hard fishes, over two times the quantity of bird species, and multiple times the quantity of well evolved creature species.
The family envelops around 6-11% of all seed plants. The biggest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species). It additionally incorporates Vanilla (the sort of the vanilla plant), the sort family Orchis, and many regularly developed plants like Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Also, since the presentation of exotic species into development in the nineteenth century, horticulturists have delivered in excess of 100,000 crossovers and cultivars.
1.1 Stem and roots
2.3 Fruits and seeds
7 Cultural imagery
8 See too
12 External connections
A Phalaenopsis blossom
Orchids are effortlessly recognized from different plants, as they share a few extremely apparent determined qualities or synapomorphies. Among these are: respective balance of the bloom (zygomorphism), numerous resupinate blossoms, an almost in every case exceptionally adjusted petal (labellum), intertwined stamens and carpels, and tiny seeds.
Stem and roots
Developing seeds of the calm orchid Anacamptis coriophora. The protocorm is the principal organ that will form into genuine roots and leaves.
All orchids are perpetual spices that miss the mark on long-lasting woody construction. They can develop as indicated by two examples:
Monopodial: The stem develops from a solitary bud, leaves are added from the pinnacle every year, and the stem develops longer as needs be. The stem of orchids with a monopodial development can arrive at a few meters long, as in Vanda and Vanilla.
Sympodial: Sympodial orchids have a front (the freshest development) and a back (the most established growth). The plant delivers a progression of nearby shoots, which develop to a specific size, blossom and afterward quit developing and are supplanted. Sympodial orchids develop along the side rather than upward, following the outer layer of their help. The development proceeds by improvement of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, growing from or close to those of the earlier year, as in Cattleya. While another lead is creating, the rhizome might begin its development again from a purported ‘eye’, a lacking bud, accordingly stretching. Sympodial orchids might have apparent pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just underneath the dirt.
Neotinea lactea, gathered in Sardinia; the little size, contrasted with a one-Euro coin, and the two globose tuberoids ordinary of the Neotinea variety are featured
Earthbound orchids might be rhizomatous or structure corms or tubers. The root covers of earthbound orchids are smooth and white.
Some sympodial earthbound orchids, like Orchis and Ophrys, have two underground tuberous roots. One is utilized as a food hold for stormy periods, and accommodates the improvement of the other one, from which apparent development creates.
In warm and continually damp environments, numerous earthbound orchids needn’t bother with pseudobulbs.
Epiphytic orchids, those that develop upon a help, have changed flying roots that can now and then be a couple of meters long. In the more established pieces of the roots, an adjusted elastic epidermis, called a velamen, has the capacity of retaining dampness. It is made of dead cells and can have a shimmering dim, white or earthy colored appearance. In certain orchids, the velamen incorporates springy and sinewy bodies close to the entry cells, called tilosomes.
The cells of the root epidermis develop at a right point to the hub of the root to permit them to get a solid handle on their help. Supplements for epiphytic orchids fundamentally come from mineral residue, natural waste, creature droppings and different substances gathering among on their supporting surfaces.
The pseudobulb of Prosthechea fragrans
The foundation of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in certain species basically the whole stem, might be thickened to shape a pseudobulb that contains supplements and water for drier periods.
The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with the long way grooves, and can have various shapes, frequently conelike or elongated. Its size is truly factor; in a few little types of Bulbophyllum, it is no longer than two millimeters, while in the biggest orchid on the planet, Grammatophyllum speciosum (monster orchid), it can arrive at three meters. A few Dendrobium animal groups have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, adjusted leaves over the entire length; a few different orchids have stowed away or tiny pseudobulbs, totally included inside the leaves.
With maturing the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes lethargic. At this stage it is frequently called a backbulb. Backbulbs actually hold nourishment for the plant, however at that point a pseudobulb for the most part dominates, taking advantage of the last saves collected in the backbulb, which in the end ceases to exist, as well. A pseudobulb ordinarily lives for around five years. Orchids without perceptible pseudobulbs are likewise said to have developments, a singular part of a sympodial plant.
Like most monocots, orchids by and large have basic leaves with equal veins, albeit some Vanilloideae have reticulate venation. Leaves might be applaud, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and truly factor in size on the singular plant. Their attributes are regularly symptomatic. They are typically substitute on the stem, regularly collapsed the long way along the middle (“plicate”), and have no stipules. Orchid leaves frequently have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular group sheaths (not present in the Orchidoideae) and are sinewy.
The construction of the leaves relates to the particular natural surroundings of the plant. Species that commonly relax in daylight, or develop on locales which can be every so often exceptionally dry, have thick, rugged leaves and the laminae are covered by a waxy fingernail skin to hold their essential water supply. Conceal adoring species, then again, have long, slender leaves.
The leaves of most orchids are perpetual, that is, they live for quite some time, while others, particularly those with plicate leaves as in Catasetum, shed them yearly and foster new leaves along with new pseudobulbs.
The leaves of certain orchids are viewed as decorative. The leaves of the Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or rock-embracing (“lithophyte”) orchid, show a shining silver and gold veining on a light green foundation. The cordate leaves of Psychopsis limminghei are light caramel green with maroon-puce markings, made by bloom shades. The alluring mottle of the leaves of woman’s shoes from tropical and subtropical Asia (Paphiopedilum), is brought about by lopsided dispersion of chlorophyll. Additionally, Phalaenopsis schilleriana is a pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dim green and light green. The gem orchid (Ludisia stain) is developed more for its bright leaves than its white blossoms.
A few orchids, for example, Dendrophylax lindenii (apparition orchid), Aphyllorchis and Taeniophyllum rely upon their green roots for photosynthesis and need typically created leaves, as do the heterotrophic species as a whole.
Orchids of the family Corallorhiza (coralroot orchids) need leaves through and through and on second thought fold their underlying foundations over the underlying foundations of mature trees and utilize particular organisms to gather sugars.
The Orchidaceae are notable for the numerous primary varieties in their blossoms.
A few orchids have single blossoms, yet most have a racemose inflorescence, once in a while with countless blossoms. The blossoming stem can be basal, that is, created from the foundation of the tuber, as in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it develops from the peak of the principle stem, as in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.
As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid blossoms are crudely zygomorphic (reciprocally even), albeit in certain genera, like Mormodes, Ludisia, and Macodes, this sort of balance might be hard to take note.
Dactylorhiza sambucina, Orchidoideae for reference
The orchid bloom, as most blossoms of monocots, has two whorls of sterile components. The external whorl has three sepals and the inward whorl has three petals. The sepals are generally basically the same as the petals (accordingly called tepals, 1), yet might be totally unmistakable.
The average petal, called the labellum or lip (6), which is constantly altered and amplified, is really the upper average petal; notwithstanding, as the blossom creates, the sub-par ovary (7) or the pedicel ordinarily pivots 180°, so that the labellum shows up at the lower a piece of the bloom, accordingly becoming appropriate to frame a stage for pollinators. This trademark, called resupination, happens crudely in the family and is considered apomorphic, an inferred trademark all Orchidaceae share. The twist of the ovary is exceptionally clear from the longitudinal segment shown (beneath right). A few orchids have optionally lost this resupination, for example Epidendrum secundum.
Longitudinal segment of a bloom of Vanilla planifolia
The ordinary type of the sepals can be found in Cattleya, where they structure a triangle. In Paphiopedilum (Venus shoes), the lower two sepals are intertwined into a synsepal, while the lip has appeared as a shoe. In Masdevallia, every one of the sepals are melded.
Orchid blossoms with strange quantities of petals or lips are called peloric. Peloria is a hereditary quality, yet its demeanor is ecologically impacted and may seem irregular.
Laeliocattleya cultivar shows the ordinary type of petals.
Orchid blossoms crudely had three stamens, however the present circumstance is currently restricted to the variety Neuwiedia. Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the focal one being sterile and diminished to a staminode. Different orchids in general, the clade called Monandria, hold just the focal stamen, the others being diminished to staminodes (4). The fibers of the stamens are dependably adnate (intertwined) to the style to frame round and hollow design called the gynostemium or segment (2). In the crude Apostasioideae, this combination is just incomplete; in the Vanilloideae, it is all the more profound; in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae, it is all out. The shame (9) is extremely uneven, as every one of its flaps are bowed towards the focal point of the blossom and lie on the lower part of the segment.
Dust is delivered as single grains, as in most different plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, and Vanilloideae. In different subfamilies, which include the extraordinary larger part of orchids, the anther (3) conveys two pollinia.
A pollinium is a waxy mass of dust grains held together by the paste like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic strands and mucopolysaccharides. Every pollinium is associated with a fiber which can appear as a caudicle, as in Dactylorhiza or Habenaria, or a stipe, as in Vanda. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a tacky cushion which adheres the pollinia to the group of pollinators.
At the upper edge of the disgrace of single-anthered orchids, before the anther cap, is the rostellum (5), a thin expansion associated with the mind boggling fertilization component.
As referenced, the ovary is consistently substandard (situated behind the bloom). It is three-carpelate and, at least one once in a while, three-apportioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the Apostasioideae).
In 2011, Bulbophyllum nocturnum was found to blossom nocturnally.
The intricate systems that orchids have developed to accomplish cross-fertilization were examined by Charles Darwin and depicted in Fertilization of Orchids (1862). Orchids have grown profoundly concentrated fertilization frameworks, accordingly the odds of being pollinated are regularly scant, so orchid blossoms ordinarily stay open for extremely extensive stretches, delivering unpollinated blossoms enduring in development. Most orchids convey dust in a solitary mass. Each time fertilization succeeds, a great many ovules can be prepared.
Pollinators are regularly outwardly drawn in by the shape and shades of the labellum. Nonetheless, a few Bulbophyllum animal categories draw in male organic product flies (Bactrocera and Zeugodacus spp.) exclusively by means of a flower compound which at the same time goes about as a botanical prize (for example methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, or zingerone) to perform pollination. The blossoms might create appealing smells. Albeit missing in many species, nectar might be created in a prod of the labellum (8 in the representation above), or on the mark of the sepals, or in the septa of the ovary, the most normal situation among the Asparagales.
Phalaenopsis pollinia (orange) connected to a toothpick with its tacky viscidium
In orchids that produce pollinia, fertilization occurs as some variation of the accompanying grouping: when the pollinator goes into the bloom, it contacts a viscidium, which instantly adheres to its body, for the most part on the head or mid-region. While leaving the blossom, it hauls the pollinium out of the anther, as it is associated with the viscidium by the caudicle or stipe. The caudicle then curves and the pollinium is moved advances and downwards. At the point when the pollinator enters one more blossom of similar species, the pollinium has taken such place that it will adhere to the shame of the subsequent bloom, just underneath the rostellum, pollinating it. In agriculture, counterfeit orchid fertilization is accomplished by eliminating the pollinia with a little instrument, for example, a toothpick from the dust parent and moving them to the seed parent.
Ophrys apifera is going to self-fertilize
A few orchids essentially or absolutely depend on self-fertilization, particularly in colder districts where pollinators are especially uncommon. The caudicles may evaporate in the event that the bloom has not been visited by any pollinator, and the pollinia then, at that point, fall straightforwardly on the disgrace. If not, the anther might pivot and afterward enter the disgrace cavity of the bloom (as in Holcoglossum amesianum).
The shoe orchid Paphiopedilum parishii duplicates by self-treatment. This happens when the anther changes from a strong to a fluid state and straightforwardly contacts the shame surface without the guide of any pollinating specialist or botanical assembly.
The labellum of the Cypripedioideae is jab hood formed, and has the capacity of catching visiting bugs. The main leave prompts the anthers that store dust on the guest.
In a few incredibly concentrated orchids, like the Eurasian family Ophrys, the labellum is adjusted to have a shading, shape, and smell which draws in male bugs by means of mimicry of an open female. Fertilization occurs as the bug endeavors to mate with blossoms.
Numerous neotropical orchids are pollinated by male orchid honey bees, which visit the blossoms to accumulate unstable synthetic substances they need to orchestrate pheromonal attractants. Guys of such species as Euglossa imperialis or Eulaema meriana have been seen to leave their domains occasionally to scavenge for fragrant mixtures, for example, cineole, to integrate pheromone for drawing in and mating with females. Each kind of orchid puts the pollinia on an alternate body part of an alternate types of honey bee, to uphold legitimate cross-fertilization.
An uncommon achlorophyllous saprophytic orchid developing altogether underground in Australia, Rhizanthella slateri, is never presented to light, and relies upon subterranean insects and other earthly bugs to fertilize it.
Catasetum, a variety examined momentarily by Darwin, really dispatches its viscid pollinia with dangerous power when a bug contacts a seta, thumping the pollinator off the blossom.
After fertilization, the sepals and petals blur and shrink, however they for the most part stay joined to the ovary.
A few animal groups, for example, in the genera Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, and Vanda, produce branch-offs or plantlets framed from one of the hubs along the stem, through the amassing of development chemicals by then. These shoots are known as keiki.
Foods grown from the ground
Cross-segments of orchid containers showing the longitudinal cuts
The ovary ordinarily forms into a container that is dehiscent by three or six longitudinal cuts, while staying shut at the two finishes.
The seeds are by and large practically tiny and extremely various, in certain species more than 1,000,000 for every container. Subsequent to aging, they brush off like residue particles or spores. Most orchid species need endosperm in their seed and should enter harmonious associations with different mycorrhizal basidiomyceteous growths that give them the fundamental supplements to develop, so practically all orchid species are mycoheterotrophic during germination and dependent upon parasites to finish their lifecycles. Just a modest bunch of orchid species have seed that can grow without mycorrhiza, specifically the species inside the class Disa with hydrochorous seeds.
Orchid seedling (Disa uniflora) on a leaf of Sphagnum on a pushpin
As the opportunity for a seed to meet a reasonable organism is tiny, one moment part of the multitude of seeds delivered develop into grown-up plants. In development, germination regularly requires weeks.
Plant strategies have been conceived for developing orchid seeds on a counterfeit supplement medium, disposing of the prerequisite of the organism for germination and extraordinarily supporting the engendering of fancy orchids. The standard mechanism for the planting of orchids in counterfeit conditions is agar gel joined with a starch energy source. The starch source can be blends of discrete sugars or can be gotten from different sources like banana, pineapple, peach, or even tomato puree or coconut water. After the readiness of the agar medium, it is filled test cylinders or containers which are then autoclaved (or cooked in a strain cooker) to disinfect the medium. In the wake of cooking, the medium starts to gel as it cools.
Fundamental article: Taxonomy of the Orchid family
The scientific classification of this family is in steady motion, as new examinations keep on explaining the connections among species and gatherings of species, permitting more taxa at a few positions to be perceived. The Orchidaceae is as of now submitted in the request Asparagales by the APG III arrangement of 2009.
Five subfamilies are perceived. The cladogram underneath was made by the APG arrangement of 1998. It addresses the view that most botanists had held up to that time. It was upheld by morphological investigations, however never gotten solid help in sub-atomic phylogenetic examinations.
Apostasioideae: 2 genera and 16 species, south-eastern Asia
Cypripedioideae: 5 genera and 130 species, from the calm areas of the world, just as tropical America and tropical Asia
Vanilloideae: 15 genera and 180 species, damp tropical and subtropical locales, eastern North America
Epidendroideae: in excess of 500 genera and the sky is the limit from there or less 20,000 species, cosmopolitan
Orchidoideae: 208 genera and 3,630 species, cosmopolitan
In 2015, a phylogenetic study showed solid measurable help for the accompanying geography of the orchid tree, utilizing 9 kb of plastid and atomic DNA from 7 qualities, a geography that was affirmed by a phylogenomic study in the equivalent year.
A review in the logical diary Nature has estimated that the beginning of orchids returns significantly longer than initially expected. A wiped out types of stingless honey bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was tracked down caught in Miocene golden from around 15-20 million years prior. The honey bee was conveying dust of a formerly obscure orchid taxon, Meliorchis caribea, on its wings. This find is the main proof of fossilized orchids to date and shows bugs were dynamic pollinators of orchids then, at that point. This terminated orchid, M. caribea, has been put inside the surviving clan Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae). A much more established orchid species, Succinanthera baltica, was depicted from the Eocene Baltic golden by Poinar and Rasmussen (2017).
Hereditary sequencing demonstrates orchids might have emerged before, 76 to 84 million years prior during the Late Cretaceous. According to Mark W. Pursue et al. (2001), the general biogeography and phylogenetic examples of Orchidaceae show they are considerably more established and may return about 100 million years.
Utilizing the sub-atomic clock technique, it was feasible to decide the age of the significant parts of the orchid family. This likewise affirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal polarity of the monandrous orchids, and probably developed from the get-go in the advancement of the family. Since this subfamily happens worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the mainlands started to part around 100 million years prior, critical biotic trade more likely than not happened after this split (since the time of Vanilla is assessed at 60 to 70 million years).
Genome duplication happened before the dissimilarity of this taxon.
The sort family (for example the sort after which the family is named) is Orchis. The family name comes from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις (órkhis), in a real sense signifying “gonad”, in light of the state of the twin tubers in certain types of Orchis. The expression “orchid” was presented in 1845 by John Lindley in School Botany, as an abbreviated type of Orchidaceae.
In Middle English, the name bollockwort was utilized for certain, orchids, in light of “bollock” meaning gonad and “wort” meaning plant.
Half and halves
Orchid species hybridize promptly in development, prompting countless mixtures with complex naming. Hybridization is conceivable across genera, and in this manner many developed orchids are put into nothogenera. For example, the nothogenus Brassocattleya is utilized for all crossovers of species from the genera Brassavola and Cattleya. Nothogenera in view of something like three genera might have names in light of an individual’s name with the postfix – ara, for example Colmanara = Miltonia × Odontoglossum × Oncidium. (The postfix is mandatory beginning at four genera.)
Developed mixtures in the orchid family are likewise exceptional in that they are named by utilizing grex classification, rather than nothospecies. For example, mixtures between Brassavola nodosa and Brassavola acaulis are set in the grex Brassavola Guiseppi. The name of the grex (“Guiseppi” in this model) is written in a non-italic text style without quotes.
As an interesting component of the orchid family, an arrangement of contractions exists that applies to names of genera and nothogenera. The framework is kept up with by the Royal Horticultural Society. These shortenings comprise of somewhere around one person, yet might be longer. Rather than the standard one-letter contractions utilized for names of genera, orchid shortenings exceptionally decide the (notho)genus. They are generally utilized in development. Models are Phal for Phalaenopsis, V for Vanda and Cleis for Cleisostoma.
Orchidaceae are cosmopolitan, happening in pretty much every living space separated from ice sheets. The world’s most extravagant variety of orchid genera and species is found in the jungles, yet they are additionally found over the Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia, and two types of Nematoceras on Macquarie Island at 54° south.
The accompanying rundown gives a harsh outline of their distribution:
Oceania: 50 to 70 genera
North America: 20 to 26 genera
tropical America: 212 to 250 genera
tropical Asia: 260 to 300 genera
tropical Africa: 230 to 270 genera
Europe and mild Asia: 40 to 60 genera
A larger part of orchids are enduring epiphytes, which become moored to trees or bushes in the jungles and subtropics. Species, for example, Angraecum sororium are lithophytes, developing on rocks or extremely rough soil. Different orchids (counting most of calm Orchidaceae) are earthly and can be found in living space regions like fields or woodland.
A few orchids, like Neottia and Corallorhiza, need chlorophyll, so can’t photosynthesise. All things being equal, these species acquire energy and supplements by parasitising soil organisms through the arrangement of orchid mycorrhizae. The growths included incorporate those that structure ectomycorrhizas with trees and other woody plants, parasites like Armillaria, and saprotrophs. These orchids are known as myco-heterotrophs, yet were previously (erroneously) depicted as saprophytes as it was accepted they acquired their sustenance by separating natural matter. While a couple of animal types are achlorophyllous holoparasites, all orchids are myco-heterotrophic during germination and seedling development, and surprisingly photosynthetic grown-up plants might keep on getting carbon from their mycorrhizal parasites.
As enrichment in a window box
A Brassolaeliocattleya (“BLC”) Paradise Jewel ‘Fire’ half breed orchid. Sprouts of the Cattleya coalition are frequently utilized in women’s corsages.
The aroma of orchids is every now and again broke down by perfumers (utilizing headspace innovation and gas-fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry) to distinguish potential scent chemicals.
The other significant utilization of orchids is their development for the delight in the blossoms. Most developed orchids are tropical or subtropical, yet a significant number that fill in colder environments can be found available. Mild species accessible at nurseries incorporate Ophrys apifera (honey bee orchid), Gymnadenia conopsea (fragrant orchid), Anacamptis pyramidalis (pyramidal orchid) and Dactylorhiza fuchsii (normal spotted orchid).
Orchids of various kinds have likewise regularly been looked for by authorities of the two species and crossovers. A huge number of social orders and clubs worldwide have been set up. These can be little, nearby clubs, or bigger, public associations like the American Orchid Society. Both serve to empower development and assortment of orchids, however some go further by focusing on protection or exploration.
The expression “plant orchid” freely means those little blossomed, tropical orchids having a place with a few genera that don’t squeeze into the “flower vendor” orchid classification. A couple of these genera contain gigantic quantities of species. Some, like Pleurothallis and Bulbophyllum, contain roughly 1700 and 2000 species, individually, and are frequently amazingly vegetatively assorted. The essential utilization of the term is among orchid specialists wishing to portray surprising species they develop, however it is likewise used to recognize normally happening orchid species from horticulturally made half breeds.
New orchids are enrolled with the International Orchid Register, kept up with by the Royal Horticultural Society.
Additional data: Vanilla
Vanilla organic product drying
The dried seed cases of one orchid variety, Vanilla (particularly Vanilla planifolia), are industrially significant as a seasoning in baking, for scent assembling and fragrant healing.
The underground tubers of earthly orchids [mainly Orchis mascula (early purple orchid)] are ground to a powder and utilized for cooking, for example, in the hot refreshment salep or in the Turkish mastic frozen yogurt dondurma. The name salep has been professed to come from the Arabic articulation ḥasyu al-tha’lab, “fox gonads”, yet it shows up almost certain the name comes straightforwardly from the Arabic name saḥlab. The closeness in appearance to testicles normally represents salep being viewed as a sexual enhancer.
The dried leaves of Jumellea fragrans are utilized to enhance rum on Reunion Island.
A few saprophytic orchid types of the gathering Gastrodia produce potato-like tubers and were devoured as food by local people groups in Australia and can be effectively developed, remarkably Gastrodia sesamoides. Wild stands of these plants can in any case be found in similar regions as early Aboriginal settlements, for example, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Australia. Native people groups found the plants in environment by seeing where bandicoots had scratched looking for the tubers in the wake of recognizing the plants underground by scent.[Note 1]
Orchids have numerous relationship with representative qualities. For instance, the orchid is the City Flower of Shaoxing, China. Cattleya mossiae is the public Venezuelan bloom, while Cattleya trianae is the public blossom of Colombia. Vanda Miss Joaquim is the public bloom of Singapore, Guarianthe skinneri is the public blossom of Costa Rica and Rhyncholaelia digbyana is the public bloom of Honduras. Prosthechea cochleata is the public blossom of Belize, where it is known as the dark orchid. Lycaste skinneri has a white assortment (alba) that is the public bloom of Guatemala, regularly known as Monja Blanca (White Nun). Panama’s public bloom is the Holy Ghost orchid (Peristeria elata), or ‘the flor del Espiritu Santo’. Rhynchostylis retusa is the state bloom of the Indian territory of Assam where it is known as Kopou Phul.
Orchids local to the Mediterranean are portrayed on the Ara Pacis in Rome, as of not long ago the main known occurrence of orchids in old craftsmanship, and the earliest in European art.[Note 2]
Adaptation (film), based on The Orchid Thief
Distribution of orchid species
Italian Group for Research on Wild Orchid
Orchid Conservation Coalition
Orchid Pavilion Gathering
Orchidelirium, the Victorian era of flower madness in which collecting and discovering orchids reached extraordinary levels
Orchids of the Philippines
Orchids of Western Australia
^ Early western district (Vic.) settler gives account of local Aboriginal people gathering potato orchid tubers, digging where bandicoots had scratched.
^ The symbolic (or even religious) meaning of the Ara Pacis orchids is not yet known.
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^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). “The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase”. Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
^ “WCSP”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 2 April 2010. (See External links below).
^ Yohan Pillon & Mark W. Chase (2007). “Taxonomic exaggeration and its effects on orchid conservation”. Conservation Biology. 21 (1): 263–265. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00573.x. PMID 17298532.
^ Nash, N., and Frownie, S. (2008). Complete guide to orchids. (Meredith Publishing Group) p. 12.
^ Jenny King (10 June 2011). “The coralroot orchid”. Orchids in Northern Washington State. Silvercrown Mountain Outdoor School. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
^ Tom Lawrie (23 November 2010). “World’s first night-flowering orchid discovered”. Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
^ Tan K.H.; Nishida R. (2000). “Mutual reproductive benefits between a wild orchid, Bulbophyllum patens, and Bactrocera fruit flies via a floral synomone”. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 26 (2): 533–546. doi:10.1023/A:1005477926244. S2CID 24971928., 28:1161-1172 and 31(3): 509-519.
^ Chen LJ, Liu KW, Xiao XJ, Tsai WC, Hsiao YY, Huang J, Liu ZJ (2012). “The anther steps onto the stigma for self-fertilization in a slipper orchid”. PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e37478. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…737478C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037478. PMC 3359306. PMID 22649529.
^ Kimsey Lynn Siri (1980). “The behaviour of male orchid bees (Apidae, Hymenoptera, Insecta) and the question of leks”. Animal Behaviour. 28 (4): 996–1004. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(80)80088-1. S2CID 53161684.
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^ Thompson, David Ian (2003). Conservation of select South African Disa Berg. Species (Orchidaceae) through in vitro seed germination. University of Natal.
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a b Santiago R. Ramírez; Barbara Gravendeel; Rodrigo B. Singer; Charles R. Marshall; Naomi E. Pierce (30 August 2007). “Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator”. Nature. 448 (7157): 1042–5. Bibcode:2007Natur.448.1042R. doi:10.1038/nature06039. PMID 17728756. S2CID 4402181.
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