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“Ketaki” diverts here. For the Indian tree otherwise called ketaki, see Pandanus odorifer.
Pandanus tectorius
Pandanus tectorius.jpg
Filling in the mountains of Oʻahu in Hawaii
Preservation status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Pandanales
Family: Pandanaceae
Genus: Pandanus
Species: P. tectorius
Binomial name
Pandanus tectorius
Parkinson ex Du Roi[2]
Pandanus tectorius is a types of Pandanus (screwpine) that is local to Malesia, eastern Australia, and the Pacific Islands. It fills in the waterfront marshes ordinarily close to the edge of the ocean.[3] Common names in English incorporate cover screwpine,[4] Tahitian screwpine,[5] hala tree,[6] pandanus, and pu hala in Hawaiian.[7] The eatable natural product is once in a while known as hala organic product.

1 Description
1.1 Flowers
1.2 Fruit
1.3 Leaves
2 Taxonomy
3 Distribution
4 Habitat
5 Ecology
6 Cultivation
7 Uses
8 Culture
9 Gallery
10 See too
11 References
12 External connections
P. tectorius is a little tree that develops upstanding to arrive at 4-14 m (13-46 ft) in height.[3] The single trunk is thin with brown ringed bark.[7] It is spiked, develops to 4.5-11 m (15-35 ft) in width,[7] and forks at a tallness of 4-8 meters (13-26 ft).[8] It is upheld by prop roots that immovably secures the tree to the ground.[7] Roots in some cases develop along the branch,[3] and they develop at wide points in relation to the trunk.[7]

Development propensity

Airborne roots

Spiked aeronautical roots and flyers

Natural product showing phalanges


Male blossom
Pandanus tectorius is dioecious, meaning male and female blossoms are borne on discrete trees,[3] with altogether different male and female blossoms. Male blossoms, known as racemes, are little, fragrant, and fleeting, enduring just a solitary day. The blossoms are assembled in 3 and accumulated in huge clusters[7] encompassed by huge, white bracts.[3] these bunches are around 1 ft long and are fragrant.[7] Female blossoms take after pineapples.[8]

In Hawaiʻi the male blossom is called hīnano and the bracts are utilized for making extremely fine mats (moena hīnano’ or ʻahu hīnano).[9]

Organic product
The female P. tectorius trees produce a fragmented, huge fruit.[3] Although not intently related,[7] the natural product looks like a pineapple.[7] The product of P. tectorius is either ovoid, ellipsoid, subglobose or globose with a width of 4-20 cm (1.6-7.9 in) and a length of 8-30 cm (3.1-11.8 in).[7] The natural product is comprised of 38-200 wedge-like phalanges, frequently alluded to as keys or carpels, which have an external sinewy husk and are 8 crawls in length.[7] There are approximately 40 to 80 keys in each foods grown from the ground shade of the natural product can be yellow, orange, or red with a green top.[3] Phalanges contain two seeds by and large, with a limit of eight announced. The phalanges are light, and the seeds inside them can stay feasible for a long time while being moved by sea currents.[8]

The leaves of Pandanus tectorius are typically 90-150 cm (3.0-4.9 ft) in length[3] and 5-7 cm (2.0-2.8 in) in width.[7] They have saw-like margins.[10] Some assortments have spines along the edges and ribs all through the leaves.[7] The leaves are spirally organized toward the finish of the branches.[7]

Scientific classification
Pandanus tectorius was first depicted by Sydney Parkinson in 1774.[11] It is an angiosperm having a place with the variety Pandanus of the family Pandanaceae.[12]

Pandanus tectorius develops locally from the Philippines through the Pacific Ocean to Hawaii. It is found in pieces of Malesia (the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, the Maluku Islands and the Philippines), all through Papuasia, and in the majority of the tropical Pacific.[11] In Australia, it is local to an area from Port Macquarie in New South Wales to northern Queensland.[13] Both the US and the Hawaiian Islands perceive just a single native animal groups, P. tectorius.[14][7] Its careful local reach is obscure because of broad development; it could be an early Polynesian prologue to a considerable lot of the more confined Pacific islands on which it happens. These islands remember Micronesia and Melanesia.[14] For Hawaii, P. tectorius is observed locally on every one of the fundamental islands with the exception of Kahoʻolawe,[7] and it is known to have originated before human settlement, in light of seed and dust tests taken from Kauaʻi’s Makauwahi Cave.[15]

Pandanus tectorius normally fills in waterfront areas, for example, on mangrove edges and beaches,[8] at rises from ocean level to 610 m (2,000 ft).[16] It requires 1,500-4,000 mm (59-157 in) of yearly precipitation and seasons will change from wet to dry.[17]

Pandanus tectorius is viewed as more dry season open minded than coconut trees. The trees have adjusted to dry season by decreasing fruiting.[18] Thatch Screwpine is very much adjusted to fill in the many soil types present on coasts, including quartz sand, coral sand, and peat, just as in limestone and basalt.[17] P. tectorius is salt and wind lenient and inclines toward marginally acidic to fundamental soil (pH of 6-10). The trees are solid and can normally endure tropical storms.[19] It likes to fill in full daylight, however develops well with 30-half shade.[8] It won’t endure conceal above 70%.[19]

There are a wide scope of regular adversaries that represent a danger to P. tectorius like parasites, microbes, and herbivores. They assault the leaves, roots, stems, and developing points.[17] The stick bug Megacrania batesii lives and feeds just on P. tectorius and two other Pandanus species.

Pandanus tectorius in Australia is compromised by a sap-sucking bug, Jamella australiae, a types of the sort Jamella of the subfamily Flatoidinae,[20] known as the Pandanus planthopper.[21] It has made a lot of harm plants on the northern bank of New South Wales,[22] prior to advancing up the coast to Noosa and the Gold Coast in Queensland during the 1990s. From that point forward it has pervaded pandanus further north, killing around 80% of the P. tectorius populace toward the south of Gladstone, Queensland, and has since arrived at Yeppoon on the Capricorn Coast, where P. tectorius has a significant impact in forestalling seaside erosion.[21] A characteristic hunter as a wasp local to northern Queensland, Aphanomerus pusillus, has been presented on Fraser Island[23][24] and in Byfield National Park[21] as one of strategies used to battle the bug. Different strategies utilized on Fraser Island including the infusion of bug spray into the plant, stripping swarmed leaves away, and rearing new plants from nearby stock. The wasp must be utilized in the hotter months on the island, as it doesn’t flourish in the cooler environment of southern Queensland.[24]

Pandanus tectorius plants developed from seed will quite often blossom at around 15 years of age versus those developed from branch cutting.[19] Flowering from trees developed from cuttings happens a whole lot sooner, normally by 3 to 4 years old and consistently by 6 years of age. (thom) The trees are either male of female. Female trees normally bloom 1 to 3 times each year while male trees will blossom each 2 months.[7] It is remembered to imitate physically in Hawaii, however there is some proof that apomixis occurs.[7] Small bugs, like honey bees, and wind are generally the pollinators.[7] It requires 1 to a long time from fertilization to collect to deliver organic product on female trees.[17]

Seasons change among areas and varieties.[17] For instance, in Fiji the fertilization season is March to May, in Northern Australia it is April to August, and in Micronesia, there are two season December to March and July to September.[17] Most assortments produce 8 to 12 organic products for each tree each 2 years.[19] Each natural product typically weighs somewhere in the range of 7 and 15 kg and contains 35 to 80 consumable keys.[19]

Pandanus tectorius plants are normally engendered by seed in Hawaii.[17] Soak the keys in cool regular water for 5 days while habitually changing the water.[25] Viable keys will drift, so it is vital to keep them. In Growing local Hawaiian plants: a how-to direct for the gardner, Bornhorst says to eliminate the meaty layer of the key and afterward cover the seed mostly in establishing soil. It is essential to keep the dirt most.[25]

P. tectorius can likewise be developed from enormous cutting. Chosen structures are spread by stem cuttings in Micronesia.[17] Morphological qualities searched for incorporate ethereal roots. Plants chose have 2/3 of their leaves managed off to forestall water loss.[17] In Native Hawaiian plants for tropical ocean side finishing, Moriarty says for best outcomes utilize mature branches with leaves and little aeronautical roots. Then, at that point, root in a sand bed.[26] Plants developed from slicing produce organic product in 4 to 6 years.[26]

Spread by uniting isn’t applicable.[17]

The product of Pandanus tectorius is eatable. A few assortments and cultivars contain huge measures of calcium oxalate, so need careful cooking prior to being consumed.[27] Other cultivars contain very little to no calcium oxalate and can be eaten crude. It is a significant food source in the atolls of Micronesia and Polynesia, with the organic product normally eaten crude or transformed into a dried glue or flour.[28] It is additionally one of the conventional food varieties of Maldivian cuisine.[29] The sinewy idea of the organic product likewise fills in as a characteristic dental floss. It is additionally utilized in Samoan culture as a ula fala, a jewelry made from the dried natural product painted in red and is worn by the Matai during unique events and functions.[30]

Australian Aborigines separated the slim, eatable seeds. This seed and the organic product, was a significant food.[31]

The tree’s leaves are frequently utilized as enhancing for sweet dishes, for example, kaya jam. It is additionally utilized in Sri Lankan cookery, where the leaves are utilized to enhance an assortment of curries. Leaves were utilized by the Polynesians to make bins, mats, outrigger ca

See also[edit]
Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia
^ Thomson, L.; Thaman, R.; Guarino, L.; Taylor, M.; Elevitch, C. (2019). “Pandanus tectorius”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T62335A135987404. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T62335A135987404.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
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a b “Pandanus tectorius”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 17 Sep 2016 – via The Plant List.
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a b c d e f g h Kinsey, Beth (2017). “Pandanus tectorius- Hala”. Wild Life of Hawaii. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
^ “Pandanus tectorius”. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 17 Sep 2016.
^ “Pandanus tectorius”. Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 17 Sep 2016.
^ “Native Plants Hawaii – Viewing Plant : Pandanus tectorius”.
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a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s “Pandanus tectorius”. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2002 – via Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation.
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a b c d e Thomson, Lex A.J.; Lois Englberger; Luigi Guarino; R.R. Thaman; Craig R. Elevitch (April 2006). “Pandanus tectorius (pandanus)” (PDF). The Traditional Tree Initiative.
^ Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). “lookup of hīnano”. in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press.
^ “Pandanus tectorius”. Native Plants Hawaii. 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
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a b “Pandanus tectorius”. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
^ “Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down To Genus Pandanus L. f.” Natural Resources Conservation Service – via Plants Database.
^ F.A. Zich; B.P.M Hyland; T. Whiffen; R.A. Kerrigan (2020). “Pandanus tectorius”. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, Edition 8. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Retrieved 5 March 2021.
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a b “Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Zucc. Tahitian screwpine”. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service – via Plants Database.
^ TenBruggencate, Jan (2005-09-28). “Kaua’i cave tells 10,000-year tale”. Honolulu Advertiser.
^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). “Hala, screwpine” (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). United States Forest Service. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
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a b c d e f g h i j Pasiecznik, Nick (2015). “Pandanus tectorius (screw pine)”. Invasive Species Compendium. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International.
^ Stone, EL; Migyar, L; Robison, WL (2000). Growing plants on atoll soils. Livermore: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. p. 25.
Jump up to:
a b c d e Thomson, LAJ; Englberger, L; Guarino, L; Thaman, RR; Elevitch, C (2006). “Pandanus tectorius (screw pine)”. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry: 29 – via PAR.
^ “Species: Jamella australiae (Pandanus Planthopper)”. Atlas of Living Australia. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
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a b c Stünzner, Inga (15 December 2020). “Byfield National Park becomes last line of defence against threat to pandanus”. ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
^ “Pandanus Dieback”. Tweed Shire Council. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
^ “The insects killing Fraser Island’s pandanus population”. The Courier Mail. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
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a b Coghill, Jon (29 October 2015). “Rangers turn to tiny native wasp to save Fraser Island’s iconic pandanus population”. ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
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a b Bornhorst, Heidi L. (1996). Growing native Hawaiian plants: a how-to guide for the gardner. Honolulu: The Bess Press. pp. 52–53.
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a b Moriarty, Dan (1975). “Native Hawaiian plants for tropical seaside landscaping”. Bulletin of the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 3: 41–48.
^ Arnold, Michael A. (2014). “Pandanus tectorius S. Parkinson” (PDF). Aggie Horticulture. Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2020-09-30.
^ Miller, C.D.; Murai, M.; Pen, F. (1956). “The Use of Pandanus Fruit As Food in Micronesia”. Pacific Science. 10. hdl:10125/8178.
^ Romero-Frias, Xavier (15 April 2013). “Eating on the Islands – As times have changed, so has the Maldives’ unique cuisine and culture”. Himalmag. 26 (2) – via
^ “Samoan ‘Ula Fala”. blackpearldesigns. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
^ Low, Tim (1991). Wild food plants of Australia. Level 13, 201 Elizabeth Street, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia: HarperCollinsPublishers. p. 42. ISBN 0-207-16930-6.
^ Kubota, Gary (26 June 2007). “Funds help hala trees strengthen isle roots”. Honolulu Star-Bulletin.