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For different utilizations, see Peony (disambiguation).
Peony
PaeoniaSuffruticosa7.jpg
Paeonia suffruticosa
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Paeoniaceae
Raf.[1]
Genus: Paeonia
L.
Type species
Paeonia officinalis
L.
Areas
Moutan
Onaepia
Paeoniae
what’s more for lower taxa see text

Paeoniaceae Distribution.svg
The scope of Paeonia.
The peony or paeony[2][3] is a blooming plant in the variety Paeonia, the main class in the family Paeoniaceae. Peonies are local to Asia, Europe and Western North America. Researchers vary on the quantity of species that can be recognized, going from 25 to 40,[4][5] albeit the flow agreement is 33 known species.[6] The connections between the species should be further clarified.[7]

Most are herbaceous enduring plants 0.25-1 meter (1-3 ft) tall, yet some are woody bushes 0.25-3.5 meters (1-11 ft) tall. They have compound, profoundly lobed leaves and huge, regularly fragrant blossoms, in colors going from purple and pink to red, white or yellow, in pre-summer and late-spring. The blossoms have a short sprouting season, normally just 7-10 days.

Peonies are famous nursery plants in calm districts. Herbaceous peonies are likewise sold as cut blossoms for a huge scope, albeit by and large just accessible in pre-summer and early summer.[8]

Substance
1 Description
1.1 Morphology
1.2 Phytochemistry
1.3 Genome
2 Taxonomy
2.1 Phylogeny
2.2 Species
2.3 Etymology
3 Distribution
3.1 Distributional history
4 Cultivation
4.1 Plant development propensities
4.2 Flower sorts
4.3 Propagation
4.4 Hybrid cultivars
5 Uses
6 Culture
7 References
8 Bibliography
9 External connections
Depiction
Morphology
All Paeoniaceae are herbaceous perennials or deciduous bushes, with thick stockpiling pulls and slight roots for social event water and minerals. A few animal varieties are caespitose (tufted), on the grounds that the crown produces extrinsic buds, while others have stolons. They have rather huge compound leaves without organs and stipules, and with anomocytic stomata. In the woody species the new development rises out of layered buds on the past flush or from the crown of the rootstock. The enormous sexually open blossoms are generally single toward the finish of the stem. In P. emodi, P. lactiflora, P. veitchii and a considerable lot of the cultivars these added to, hardly any extra blossoms create in the axils of the leaves. Blossoms close around evening time or when the sky is cloudy. Each blossom is subtended by various bracts, that might frame a kind of involucre, has 3-7 extreme free sepals and generally 5-8, yet infrequently up to 13 free petals. These classifications anyway are intergrading, making it hard to relegate some of them, and the quantity of these parts might differ. Inside are various (50-160) free stamens, with anthers fixed at their base to the fibers, and are sagittate in shape, open with longitudal cuts at the external side and free dust grains which have three cuts or pores and comprise of two cells. Inside the circle of stamens is a pretty much conspicuous, lobed plate, which is assumed not to discharge nectar. Inside the circle is a shifting number (1-15) of independent carpels, which have an extremely short style and a decurrent disgrace. Each of these forms into a dry organic product (which is known as a follicle), which opens with a the long way stitch and every one of which contains one or a couple of enormous meaty seeds. The yearly development is foreordained: assuming the developing tip of a shoot is eliminated, no new buds will foster that season.[8][9][10]

Paeonia suffruticosa,
buds

youthful development of
a tree peony

Paeonia veitchii,
leaf

Paeonia tenuifolia,
leaves and blossom buds

Paeonia suffruticosa, showing the plate that encases the carpels

Paeonia wittmanniana,
ready follicles with seeds

Paeonia anomala,
seeds

Phytochemistry
North of 262 mixtures have been gotten such a long ways from the plants of Paeoniaceae. These incorporate monoterpenoid glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, paeonols, and phenols. In vitro natural exercises incorporate cancer prevention agent, antitumor, antipathogenic, immunomodulative, cardiovascular-framework defensive exercises and focal sensory system activities.[11]

Paeoniaceae are reliant upon C3 carbon obsession. They contain ellagic corrosive, myricetin, ethereal oils and flavones, just as precious stones of calcium oxalate. The wax tubules that are shaped basically comprise of palmitone (the ketone of palmitic acid).[9][10]

Genome
The fundamental chromosome number is five. About portion of the types of the segment Paeonia anyway is tetraploid (4n=20), especially a significant number of those in the Mediterranean district. Both allotetraploids and autotetraploids are known, and a few diploid animal groups are additionally of mixture origin.[9]

Scientific classification
The family name “Paeoniaceae” was first utilized by Friedrich K.L. Rudolphi in 1830, following an idea by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling that equivalent year.[4] The family had been given different names a couple of years earlier.[12] The sythesis of the family has changed, yet it has comprised all the time of Paeonia and at least one genera that are presently positioned in Ranunculales.[5] It has been generally accepted that Paeonia is nearest to Glaucidium, and this thought has been continued in some new works.[4][13] Molecular phylogenetic examinations, nonetheless, have shown indisputably that Glaucidium has a place in the family Ranunculaceae, request Ranunculales,[14] yet that Paeonia has a place in the irrelevant request Saxifragales.[15] The sort Paeonia comprises of around 35 species, appointed to three areas: Moutan, Onaepia and Paeoniae. The part Onaepia just incorporates P. brownii and P. californicum. The part Moutan is partitioned into P. delavayi and P. ludlowii, together making up the subsection Delavayanae, and P. catayana, P. decomposita, P. jishanensis, P. osti, P. qiui and P. rockii which comprise the subsection Vaginatae. P. suffruticosa is a developed mixture swarm, not a normally happening species.[16]

The rest of the species has a place with the segment Paeonia, which is described by a convoluted reticulate advancement. Just with regards to half of the (sub)species is diploid, the other half tetraploid, while certain species both have diploid and tetraploid populaces. Notwithstanding the tetraploids, are a few diploid animal groups likewise reasonable the consequence of hybridisation, or nothospecies. Known diploid taxa in the Paeonia-area are P. anomala, P. lactiflora, P. veitchii, P. tenuifolia, P. emodi, P. broteri, P. cambedessedesii, P. clusii, P. rhodia, P. daurica subsps. coriifolia, daurica, macrophylla and mlokosewitschii. Tetraploid taxa are P. arietina, P. officinalis, P. parnassica, P. banatica, P. russi, P. peregrina, P. coriacea, P. mascula subsps. hellenica and mascula, and P. daurica subsps. tomentosa and wittmanniana. Species that have both diploid and tetraploid populaces incorporate P. clusii, P. mairei and P. obovata. P. anomala was demonstrated to be a cross breed of P. lactiflora and P. veitchii, in spite of the fact that being a diploid with 10 chromosomes. P. emodi and P. sterniana are diploid mixtures of P. lactiflora and P. veitchii as well, and drastically divergent apparently. P. russi is the tetraploid cross breed of diploid P. lactiflora and P. mairei, while P. cambedessedesii is the diploid cross breed of P. lactiflora, possible P. mairei, however perhaps at the same time P. obovata. P. peregrina is the tetraploid cross breed of P. anomala and either P. arietina, P. humilis, P. officinalis, P. parnassica or more uncertain P. tenuifolia, or one of their (presently wiped out) normal predecessors. P. banatica is the tetraploid cross breed of P. mairei and one of this equivalent gathering. P. broteri, P. coriacea, P. clusii, P. rhodia, P. daurica subsp. mlokosewitschi, P. mascula subsp. hellenica and ssp. mascula, and P. daurica subsp. wittmanniana are on the whole relatives of half and halves of P. lactiflora and P. obovata.[16][17]

Phylogeny
Late hereditary examinations relate the monogeneric family Paeoniaceae to a gathering of families with woody species in the request Saxifragales. This outcomes in the accompanying relationship tree.[15] One thesis recommends the segment Onaepia branches off earliest, however a later distribution of a similar creator and others proposes the Moutan-area separates first. Inside that part P. ludlowii and P. delavayi are more connected with one another than to some other species.[18][19]

Saxifragales

Peridiscaceae

woody clade

Paeonia

Altingiaceae

Hamamelidaceae

Cercidiphyllum

Daphniphyllum

center Saxifragales

sort Paeonia
area Paeoniae
all Eurasian herbaceous peonies

area Moutan

subsection Vaginatae
any remaining tree peonies

subsection Delavayanae

P. ludlowii

P. delavayi

segment Onaepia

P. brownii

P. californica

Species
Herbaceous species (around 30 species)
Paeonia algeriensis
Paeonia anomala
Paeonia arietina
Paeonia broteri
Paeonia brownii (Brown’s peony)
Paeonia californica (California peony or wild peony)
Paeonia cambessedesii (Majorcan peony)
Paeonia clusii
subsp. clusii
subsp. rhodia
Paeonia coriacea
Paeonia corsica
Paeonia daurica
subsp. coriifolia
subsp. daurica
subsp. macrophylla
subsp. mlokosewitschii
subsp. tomentosa
subsp. velebitensis
subsp. wittmanniana
Paeonia emodi
Paeonia intermedia
Paeonia kesrouanensis (Keserwan peony)
Paeonia lactiflora (Chinese or normal nursery peony)
Paeonia mairei
Paeonia mascula (Balkan, wild or male peony)
Paeonia obovata
subsp. willmottiae
Paeonia officinalis (European or normal peony, type species)
Paeonia parnassica (Greek peony)
Paeonia peregrina
Paeonia sterniana
Paeonia tenuifolia (Steppe peony)
Paeonia veitchii (Veitch’s peony)

References[edit]
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^ Dictionary.com
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