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This article is about the plant. For different utilizations, see Red clover (disambiguation).
Trifolium pratense
Trifolium pratense – Keila2.jpg
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Trifolium
Species: T. pratense
Binomial name
Trifolium pratense
Trifolium pratense, the red clover,[1][2] is a herbaceous types of blossoming plant in the bean family Fabaceae, local to Europe, Western Asia, and northwest Africa, however planted and naturalized in numerous different areas.

1 Description
2 Distribution
3 Uses
3.1 Medical employments of the plant
4 Diseases
5 Symbolism
6 See too
7 References
8 Further perusing
9 External connections
Trifolium pratense – Keila.jpg

White-blossomed structure

Red clover is a decent dust and nectar hotspot for honey bees
Red clover is a herbaceous, fleeting lasting plant, variable in size, developing to 20-80 cm (8-31 in) tall. It has a profound taproot which makes it lenient to dry spell and gives it a decent soil organizing effect.[3] The leaves are substitute, trifoliate (with three flyers), every pamphlet 15-30 mm (0.6-1.2 in) long and 8-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) wide, green with a trademark pale bow in the external portion of the leaf; the petiole is 1-4 cm (0.4-1.6 in) long, with two basal stipules that are suddenly restricted to a fiber like point. The blossoms are dull pink with a paler base, 12-15 mm (0.5-0.6 in) since quite a while ago, created in a thick inflorescence, and are generally visited by bumblebees.[4]

The red clover is local to Europe, Western Asia, and northwest Africa, yet it has been naturalized in different mainlands, similar to North and South America. In particular, the red clover was brought to Argentina and Chile more than 100 years prior, despite the fact that it isn’t clear how precisely it was introduced.[5] The red clover has become progressively significant as a wellspring of financial steadiness in Chile, which has made the requirement for pollinators considerably more important.[6] One significant pollinator, which was likewise brought from Europe, is Bombus ruderatus, or the huge nursery honey bee. This honey bee has been one of the significant pollinators of red clover in South America and different nations like New Zealand.[7]


Trifolium pratense, general viewpoint
It is broadly developed as a grub crop, esteemed for its nitrogen obsession, which builds soil richness. Thus, it is utilized as a green fertilizer crop. A few cultivar bunches have been chosen for horticultural use, generally got from T. pratense var. sativum. It has become naturalized in numerous calm regions, including the Americas and Australasia as a departure from development.

Because of its magnificence, it is utilized as a fancy plant.

Red clover’s blossoms and leaves are palatable, and can be added as toppings to any dish.[8] They can be ground into a flour.

The blossoms regularly are utilized to make jam and tisanes, and are utilized in essiac plans. Their medicinal ointment might be removed and its novel fragrance utilized in fragrant healing.

Trifolium pratense’s enduring nature bears the cost of supported, solid development. Besides, the species’ previously mentioned incentive for nitrogen obsession advances protein rich development, accordingly ready to help a wide scope of untamed life including deer, turkeys, and hares. These attributes make Trifolium pratense the ideal plant for trackers keen on using natural science as a strategy for drawing in game.[9] The appealing pink blossoms on the stem bear the cost of high perceivability levels and work with such fascination. Along these lines, such species may correspondingly be utilized by untamed life remediation groups and traditionalists trying to fabricate natural life spans to interface divided environments. These species, local fundamentally to the American south,[10] give solid fascination with deer, turkeys, and hare movement toward natural life crossing, and in this way, away from streets. [11]

Clinical employments of the plant
Trifolium pratense is utilized in customary medication of India as deobstruent, antispasmodic, expectorant, soothing, calming and antidermatosis agent.[12]

In elective medication, red clover is advanced as a therapy for an assortment of human diseases, including indications of menopause, hacks, issues of the lymphatic framework and an assortment of tumors. A few fundamental surveys and meta-examinations reasoned that red clover separate lessens the recurrence of menopause hot glimmers. Most added that further exploration is expected to affirm the results.[13][14] There is no proof in the human preliminary writing that red clover has been tried for consequences for hack, lymphatic framework or disease avoidance/treatment. Dietary measures of red clover are protected, however dietary enhancement concentrates might cause rash-like responses, muscle throb, migraine, queasiness, vaginal draining in ladies, and slow blood clotting.[15]

Red clover contains coumestrol, a phytoestrogen.[16] Due to its action on estrogen receptors, red clover is contraindicated in individuals with a background marked by bosom malignant growth, endometriosis, ovarian disease, uterine malignant growth, uterine fibroids or other estrogen-touchy conditions,[17] albeit a few creators have recommended the high isoflavone content balances this, and even gives benefits in these conditions.[18]

Because of its coumarin subordinates, T. pratense ought to be involved with alert in people with coagulation issues or right now going through anticoagulation therapy.[19]

It is used by CYP3A4 and hence alert should be utilized when taking it with different medications utilizing this metabolic pathway.[20]

Fundamental article: List of red clover infections
Red clover is likely to bacterial just as parasitic infections, including the red clover rust, Uromyces trifolii-repentis var. fallens. Different issues incorporate parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and infections.

Trifolium pratense is the public bloom of Denmark[21] and the state blossom of Vermont.[22]

See also[edit]
Green manure
List of ineffective cancer treatments
^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
^ “Trifolium pratense”. Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
^ “Red Clover”. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). “Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers”. Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
^ Rosso, B. S.; Pagano, E. M. (2005-08-01). “Evaluation of Introduced and Naturalised Populations of Red Clover(Trifolium pratense L.) at Pergamino EEA-INTA, Argentina”. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 52 (5): 507–511. doi:10.1007/s10722-005-0777-z. ISSN 0925-9864. S2CID 21172324.
^ Arretz, P. V.; Macfarlane, R. P. (1986-01-01). “The Introduction of Bombus Ruderatus to Chile for Red Clover Pollination”. Bee World. 67 (1): 15–22. doi:10.1080/0005772X.1986.11098855. ISSN 0005-772X.
^ Morales, Carolina L; Arbetman, Marina P; Cameron, Sydney A; Aizen, Marcelo A (2013-07-15). “Rapid ecological replacement of a native bumble bee by invasive species”. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 11 (10): 529–534. doi:10.1890/120321. ISSN 1540-9295. S2CID 86469248.
^ “Red Clover: Pictures, Flowers, Leaves and Identification | Trifolium pratense”. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
^ “Red Clover – Food Plot Seed | Pennington”. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
^ “Red Clover – Food Plot Seed | Pennington”. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
^ Society, National Geographic (2019-07-16). “Wildlife Crossings”. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
^ Indian medicinal plants : an illustrated dictionary. Khare, C. P., 1932-. Berlin: Springer. 2007. ISBN 9780387706375. OCLC 316267725.
^ Gartoulla P, Han MM (2014). “Red clover extract for alleviating hot flushes in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis”. Maturitas. 79 (1): 58–64. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.06.018. PMID 25074017.
^ Ghazanfarpour M, Sadeghi R, Roudsari RL, Khorsand I, Khadivzadeh T, Muoio B (2016). “Red clover for treatment of hot flashes and menopausal symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. J Obstet Gynaecol. 36 (3): 301–11. doi:10.3109/01443615.2015.1049249. PMID 26471215. S2CID 1987452.
^ Red clover, WebMD.
^ Bhagwat, Seema; Haytowitz, David; Holden, Joanne. “USDA Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods” (PDF). US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
^ Cornelia Bodinet & Johannes Freudenstein (2004). “Influence of marketed herbal menopause preparations on MCF-7 cell proliferation”. Menopause. 11 (3): 281–289. doi:10.1097/01.gme.0000094209.15096.2b. PMID 15167307. S2CID 11117474.
^ Dean W. Roberts, Daniel R. Doerge, Mona I. Churchwell, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa, M. Matilde Marques & William H. Tolleson (2004). “Inhibition of extrahepatic human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 by metabolism of isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense (red clover)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (21): 6623–6632. doi:10.1021/jf049418x. PMID 15479032.
^ W. Abebe (2002). “Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs”. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 27 (6): 391–401. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2002.00444.x. PMID 12472978. S2CID 1828900.
^ “Red clover (Trifolium pratense) Cautions – Epocrates Online”. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
^ “Other National Symbols”. Embassy of Denmark, Washington DC. Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
^ “Red Clover”. Vermont Historical Society. Retrieved 3 April 2015.