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Rose
Transient reach: Eocene-Recent
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Rosa rubiginosa 1.jpg
Rosa rubiginosa
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Roseae
Genus: Rosa
L.
Species
See List of Rosa species

Equivalent words
Hulthemia Dumort.
×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)
A rose is a woody enduring blossoming plant of the class Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the bloom it bears. There are north of 300 species and a huge number of cultivars.[citation needed] They structure a gathering of plants that can be erect bushes, climbing, or following, with stems that are regularly furnished with sharp prickles.[citation needed] Their blossoms differ in size and shape and are normally huge and conspicuous, in colors going from white through yellows and reds. Most species are local to Asia, with more modest numbers local to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa.[citation needed] Species, cultivars and crossovers are on the whole broadly developed for their magnificence and frequently are fragrant. Roses have obtained social importance in numerous social orders. Rose plants range in size from minimized, smaller than expected roses, to climbers that can arrive at seven meters in height.[citation needed] Different species hybridize effectively, and this has been utilized in the advancement of the wide scope of nursery roses.

Substance
1 Etymology
2 Botany
2.1 Evolution
2.2 Species
3 Uses
3.1 Ornamental plants
3.2 Cut blossoms
3.3 Perfume
3.4 Food and drink
3.5 Medicine
3.6 Art and imagery
4 Pests and illnesses
5 See moreover
6 References
7 External connections
Derivation
The name rose comes from Latin rosa, which was maybe acquired from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself acquired from Old Persian wrd-(wurdi), connected with Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.[1][2]

Natural science

Rose thistles are really prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis

Rose flyers

Outside perspective on rose buds

Longitudinal segment through a creating rose hip
The leaves are borne on the other hand on the stem. In many species they are 5 to 15 centimeters (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3-) 5-9 (- 13) handouts and basal stipules; the flyers normally have a serrated edge, and regularly a couple of little prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous yet a couple (especially from Southeast Asia) are evergreen or almost so.

The blossoms of most species have five petals, except for Rosa sericea, which typically has just four. Every petal is partitioned into two particular projections and is typically white or pink, however in a couple of animal varieties yellow or red. Underneath the petals are five sepals (or on account of some Rosa sericea, four). These might be sufficiently long to be apparent when seen from a higher place and show up as green focuses substituting with the adjusted petals. There are various unrivaled ovaries that form into achenes.[3] Roses are bug pollinated in nature.

The total product of the rose is a berry-like construction called a rose hip. Large numbers of the homegrown cultivars don’t deliver hips, as the blossoms are extremely firmly petalled that they don’t give admittance to fertilization. The hips of most species are red, yet a couple (for example Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dull purple to dark hips. Every hip involves an external plump layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5-160 “seeds” (in fact dry single-cultivated organic products called achenes) inserted in a network of fine, however firm, hairs. Rose hips of certain species, particularly the canine rose (Rosa canina) and rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa), are exceptionally plentiful in L-ascorbic acid, among the most extravagant wellsprings of any plant. The hips are eaten by natural product eating birds, for example, thrushes and waxwings, which then, at that point, scatter the seeds in their droppings. A few birds, especially finches, likewise eat the seeds.

The sharp developments along a rose stem, however usually called “thistles”, are in fact prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis (the external layer of tissue of the stem), dissimilar to genuine thistles, which are changed stems. Rose prickles are ordinarily sickle-molded snares, which help the rose in clinging to other vegetation when developing over it. A few animal categories, for example, Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have thickly pressed straight prickles, presumably a transformation to lessen perusing by creatures, yet additionally perhaps a variation to trap wind-blown sand thus diminish disintegration and secure their underlying foundations (both of these species develop normally on seaside sand rises). Regardless of the presence of prickles, roses are habitually perused by deer. A couple of types of roses have just minimal prickles that have no focuses.

Advancement
The most established remaining parts of roses are from the Late Eocene Florissant Formation of Colorado.[4] Roses were available in Europe by the early Oligocene.[5]

The present nursery roses come from eighteenth century China.[6] Among the old Chinese nursery roses, the Old Blush bunch is the most crude, while more current gatherings are the most diverse.[7]

Species
Principle article: List of Rosa species

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Rosa gallica Evêque, painted by Redouté
The sort Rosa is made out of 140-180 species and isolated into four subgenera:[8]

Hulthemia (previously Simplicifoliae, signifying “with single leaves”) containing two species from southwest Asia, Rosa persica and Rosa berberifolia, which are the main roses without compound leaves or stipules.
Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for “western rose”) contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
Platyrhodon (from the Greek for “flaky rose”, alluding to flaky bark) with one animal groups from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (otherwise called the chestnut rose).
Rosa (the sort subgenus, now and again erroneously called Eurosa) containing the wide range of various roses. This subgenus is partitioned into 11 areas.
Banksianae – white and yellow bloomed roses from China.
Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India.
Caninae – pink and white bloomed species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
Carolinae – white, pink, and radiant pink blossomed species all from North America.
Chinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and blended shading roses from China and Burma.
Gallicanae – pink to ruby and striped bloomed roses from western Asia and Europe.
Gymnocarpae – one animal categories in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia.
Laevigatae – a solitary white bloomed animal categories from China.
Pimpinellifoliae – white, pink, dazzling yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
Rosa (syn. faction. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from wherever however North Africa.
Synstylae – white, pink, and red bloomed roses from all areas.
Employments
Roses are most popular as decorative plants developed for their blossoms in the nursery and once in a while inside. They have been likewise utilized for business perfumery and business cut bloom crops. Some are utilized as scene plants, for supporting and for other utilitarian purposes like game cover and incline adjustment.

Elaborate plants
Fundamental article: Garden roses
Most of elaborate roses are half and halves that were reared for their blossoms. A couple, generally species roses are developed for appealing or scented foliage, (for example, Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), fancy thistles, (for example, Rosa sericea) or for their ostentatious organic product, (for example, Rosa moyesii).

Fancy roses have been developed for centuries, with the earliest realized development known to date from something like 500 BC in Mediterranean nations, Persia, and China.[9] It is assessed that 30 to 35 thousand rose crossovers and cultivars have been reproduced and chosen for garden use as blooming plants.[10] Most are twofold blossomed with numerous or each of the stamens having transformed into extra petals.

In the mid nineteenth century the Empress Josephine of France disparaged the advancement of rose rearing at her nurseries at Malmaison. As quite a while in the past as 1840 an assortment numbering north of 1,000 unique cultivars, assortments and species was conceivable when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian nursery burial ground and arboretum in England.

Cut blossoms
Principle article: Cut blossoms

Bundle of pink roses
Roses are a well known harvest for both homegrown and business cut blossoms. For the most part they are gathered and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until prepared for show at their retail location.

In mild environments, cut roses are regularly filled in nurseries, and in hotter nations they may likewise be developed under cover to guarantee that the blossoms are not harmed by climate and that vermin and infectious prevention can be done adequately. Huge amounts are filled in a few tropical nations, and these are transported via air to business sectors across the world.[11]

A roses of some sort or another are falsely shaded utilizing colored water, similar to rainbow roses.

Aroma
Additional data: Rose oil and Rose water

Geraniol (C
10H
18O)
Rose aromas are produced using rose oil (likewise called attar of roses), which is a combination of unstable rejuvenating ointments acquired by steam refining the squashed petals of roses. A related item is rose water which is utilized for cooking, beauty care products, medication and strict practices. The creation procedure began in Persia[12] and afterward spread through Arabia and India, and all the more as of late into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa × damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are utilized. In different areas of the planet Rosa × centifolia is generally utilized. The oil is straightforward light yellow or yellow-dim in co

ADR rose
List of Award of Garden Merit roses
List of rose cultivars named after people
Rose (colour)
Rose garden
Rose Hall of Fame
Rose show
Rose trial grounds
References
^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, s.v. “rose.”
^ “GOL – Encyclopaedia Iranica”. Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
^ Mabberley, D. J. (1997). The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
^ DeVore, M. L.; Pigg, K. B. (July 2007). “A brief review of the fossil history of the family Rosaceae with a focus on the Eocene Okanogan Highlands of eastern Washington State, USA, and British Columbia, Canada”. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 45–57. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0540-3. ISSN 0378-2697.
^ Kellner, A.; Benner, M.; Walther, H.; Kunzmann, L.; Wissemann, V.; Ritz, C. M. (March 2012). “Leaf Architecture of Extant Species of Rosa L. and the Paleogene Species Rosa lignitum Heer (Rosaceae)”. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 173 (3): 239–250. doi:10.1086/663965. ISSN 1058-5893.
^ “The History of Roses – Our Rose Garden – University of Illinois Extension”. Web.extension.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
^ “Genetic relationships and evolution of old Chinese garden roses based on SSRs and chromosome diversity – Scientific Reports”. Nature. 2017-11-13. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
^ Leus, Leen; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan (2018). “Rose”. In Van Huylenbroeck, Johan (ed.). Ornamental Crops. Springer. p. 720. ISBN 978-3319906973.
^ Goody, Jack (1993). The Culture of Flowers. Cambridge University Press.
^ Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Bris, Manuel Le (2013). “Genetics and genomics of flower initiation and development in roses”. Journal of Experimental Botany. 64 (4): 847–857. doi:10.1093/jxb/ers387. PMC 3594942. PMID 23364936.
^ “ADC Commercialisation bulletin #4: Fresh cut roses” (PDF). FOODNET Uganda 2009. May 14, 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
^ Nikbakht, Ali (2004). “A study on the relationships between Iranian people and Damask rose (Rosa damascena) and its therapeutic and healing properties”. researchgate. The origin of Damask rose is the Middle East and it is the national flower of Iran. Rose oil usage dates back to ancient civilization of Persia. Avicenna, the 10th century Persian physician, distilled its petals for medical purposes and commercial distillery existed in 1612 in Shiraz, Persia.
^ Stewart, D. (2005). The Chemistry Of Essential Oils Made Simple: God’s Love Manifest In Molecules. Care. ISBN 978-0-934426-99-2.
^
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a b c Angier, Bradford (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 186. ISBN 0-8117-0616-8. OCLC 799792.
^ “Rose Hip Benefits”. Herbwisdom.com. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
^ “Rosewater recipes – BBC Food”. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
^ “Rose Flavored Ice Cream with Rose Petals”. eCurry.
^ Samanth Subramanian (27 April 2012). “Rooh Afza, the syrup that sweetens the subcontinent’s summers”. The National.
^ “St. Petersburg Times – Google News Archive Search”. google.com.
^ “rosepetal candy – Google Search”. google.co.uk.
^ “Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)”. 6 September 2019.
^ “Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR)”. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).
^ “Rosa chinensis China Rose PFAF Plant Database”. Pfaf.org. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
^ “dia-“. Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
^
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a b c d Cyrino, Monica S. (2010). Aphrodite. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 63, 96. ISBN 978-0-415-77523-6.
^
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a b c d e f g Clark, Nora (2015). Aphrodite and Venus in Myth and Mimesis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 209–210. ISBN 978-1-4438-7127-3.
^ Iliad 23.185–187
^ Ibycus, fragment 288.4
^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 6.24.7
^ “Rose Flower Meaning and Symbolism”. 20 July 2016.
^ Lisa Cucciniello, “Rose to Rosary: The Flower of Venus in Catholicism” in Rose Lore: Essays in Semiotics and Cultural History (ed. Frankie Hutton: Lexington Books, 2008), pp. 64-65.
^ Cucciniello, Rose Lore, at pp. 65-67.
^ Ugo Salvini “La rarissima Rosa di Trieste spezza l’oblio e rispunta a sorpresa sulle colline di Muggia” In: Il Piccolo 27.01.2021, La Rosa.
^ “National Flower | The Rose”. statesymbolsusa.org.
^ “National Flower of United States – Fresh from the Grower”. Growerflowers.com. Retrieved 2021-02-26.