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“Carnation” diverts here. For different utilizations, see Carnation (disambiguation).
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This present article’s lead area might be excessively short to sufficiently sum up the central issues. If it’s not too much trouble, consider extending the lead to give an open outline of terrifically significant parts of the article. (January 2022)
Dianthus caryophyllus
W carnation4051.jpg
Red carnations
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Genus: Dianthus
Species: D. caryophyllus
Binomial name
Dianthus caryophyllus
Dianthus caryophyllus, generally known as the carnation or clove pink, is a types of Dianthus. It is likely local to the Mediterranean area yet its precise reach is obscure because of broad development for the last 2,000 years.[1][2][3][4]

1 Taxonomy
2 Description
3 Distribution and environment
4 Cultivation and employments
5 Diseases
6 Symbolism
6.1 Traditional implications
6.2 Holidays and occasions
6.3 Symbols of regional elements and associations
7 Colors
8 See too
9 References
10 External connections
Scientific categorization

Peter Binoit, Stilleben, frukt – Still existence with carnations, 1618
Carnations were referenced in Greek writing 2,000 years prior. The term dianthus was authored by Greek botanist Theophrastus, and is gotten from the Ancient Greek words for divine (“dios”) and blossom (“anthos”).[5] The name “carnation” is accepted to come from the Latin crown ae, a “wreath, laurel, chaplet, crown”,[6] as it was one of the blossoms utilized in Greek and Roman stylized crowns, or potentially from the Latin caro (genitive carnis), “flesh”,[6] which alludes to the regular shade of the bloom, or in Christian iconography incarnatio, “manifestation”, God made tissue as Jesus.

The legend that clarifies the name is that Diana the Goddess happened upon the shepherd kid and started to appreciate him. Be that as it may, the kid, for reasons unknown, turned her down. Diana tore out his eyes and tossed them to the ground where they grew into the dianthus blossom.

Carl Linnaeus portrayed the carnation in volume one of his Species Plantarum in 1753, giving it the name Dianthus caryophyllus,[7]

Albeit initially applied to the species Dianthus caryophyllus, the name carnation is additionally frequently applied to a portion of different types of Dianthus, and all the more especially to cultivate half and halves between D. caryophyllus and different species in the family.

Dianthus caryophyllus is a herbaceous lasting plant growing up to 80 cm (31+1⁄2 in) tall. The leaves are glaucous grayish green to blue-green, thin, up to 15 cm (6 in) long. The blossoms are created independently or up to five together in a cyme; they are around 3-5 cm (1+1⁄4-2 in) distance across, and pleasantly scented; the first regular bloom tone is dazzling pinkish-purple, yet cultivars of different tones, including red, white, yellow, blue and green, alongside a few white with shaded striped varieties have been created. The fragrant, bisexual blossoms have a spiral evenness. The four to six encompassing the calyx, egg-molded, sting-pointed scales leaves are just ¼ as long as the calyx tube.[4][8]

Circulation and natural surroundings
The wild carnation is found in the Mediterranean nations of Croatia, Albania, Greece, Italy (counting Sicily and Sardinia), and Spain.[9]

Development and employments
Carnations require all around depleted, impartial to marginally soluble soil, and full sun. Various cultivars have been chosen for garden planting.[4] Typical models incorporate ‘Gina Porto’, ‘Helen’, ‘Bound Romeo’, and ‘Red Rocket’. They are utilized for clinical purposes, for example, for steamed stomach and fever. Their aroma was generally utilized for vinegar, brew, wine, sauces and salads.[10]

Crossbreeding D. caryophyllus with D. capitatus brings about a crossover that is impervious to bacterial shrink from Paraburkholderia caryophylli. Nonetheless, the blossom is less appealing thus really reproducing and backcrossing is expected to work on the flower.[11]

Carnation cultivars with no scent are regularly utilized by men as boutonnières or “buttonholes”.

Primary article: List of carnation illnesses

A carnation cultivar

Blossom buds
Conventional implications
Generally, carnations express love, interest, and qualification, however there are numerous varieties reliant upon shading.

Alongside the red rose, the red carnation can be utilized as an image of communism and the work development, and generally has frequently been utilized in showings on International Workers’ Day (May Day).
In China, the carnation blossom is the most often involved bloom in weddings.[12]
In Portugal, radiant red carnations were involved when in 1974 the dictator Estado Novo system was toppled; accordingly, this progress (achieved by a blend of a rebellion with common opposition) is known as the Carnation Revolution.
Light red carnations address reverence, while dull red signify profound love and warmth.
White carnations address unadulterated love and best of luck, while striped (variegated) carnations represent lament that an affection can’t be shared.
White carnations, in the Netherlands are related with Prince Bernhard. He wore one during World War II and in a token of resistance a portion of the Dutch populace took up this signal. After the conflict the white carnation turned into an indication of the Prince, veterans and recognition of the opposition.
Purple carnations demonstrate eccentricity. In France, it is a conventional memorial service blossom, given in sympathy for the demise of an adored one.[13][14]
Carnation is the birth bloom for those brought into the world in the long stretch of January.[15]
Since Ottoman times, red carnations and tulips are utilized in the inside divider compositions of mosques in Turkey. It is generally expected said that while tulips address God, carnations is the image for Muhammad. Anyway these blossom plans are not extraordinary to mosques but rather additionally utilized in numerous other Ottoman customary works of art.
In Azerbaijan, red carnations has transformed into an image of grieving after the utilization of the bloom during Black January occasions of 1990, a brutal crackdown on the non military personnel populace of the country by USSR troops.
The proper name for carnation, dianthus, comes from Greek for “wonderful flower”,[16] or the blossom of Jove.[17]

Painting recognizing the Portuguese Carnation Revolution
Occasions and occasions
Carnations are frequently worn on extraordinary events, particularly Mother’s Day and weddings. In 1907, Anna Jarvis picked a carnation as the token of Mother’s Day since it was her mom’s most loved flower.[18] This custom is currently seen in the United States and Canada on the subsequent Sunday in May. Ann Jarvis picked the white carnation since she needed to address the immaculateness of a mother’s love.[19][20] This importance has developed over the long haul, and presently a red carnation might be worn assuming one’s mom is alive, and a white one in the event that she has died.[21]

In Korea, carnations express appreciation, love and appreciation. Red and pink carnations are worn on Parents Day (Korea doesn’t separate Mother’s Day or Father’s Day, however has Parents Day on 8 May). Some of the time, guardians wear a corsage of carnation(s) to their left side chest on Parents Day. Carnations are likewise worn on Teachers Day (15 May).[22]

Red carnations are worn on May Day as an image of communism and the work development in certain nations, like Austria, Italy,[23] and replacement nations of the previous Yugoslavia. The red carnation is likewise the image of the Carnation Revolution in Portugal.

Green carnations are for St. Patrick’s Day and were broadly worn by the Irish essayist Oscar Wilde. The green carnation thereupon turned into an image of homosexuality in the mid twentieth century, particularly through the book The Green Carnation and Noël Coward’s tune, “We as a whole Wear a Green Carnation” in his operetta, Bitter Sweet.

In socialist Czechoslovakia and in Poland in the midst of the People’s Republic of Poland, carnations were customarily given to ladies on the broadly observed Women’s Day, along with items that were hard to acquire because of the nations’ socialist framework, for example, leggings, towels, cleanser and coffee.[citation needed]

After the 1990 uprisings against Soviets in Azerbaijan wherein 147 Azerbaijani regular citizens were killed, 800 individuals were harmed and five individuals disappeared, the carnation has turned into an image of the Black January misfortune related with the carnations tossed into the puddles of gore in the roads of Azerbaijan resulting to the massacre.[24]

At the University of Oxford, carnations are customarily worn to all assessments; white for the primary test, pink for tests in the middle, and red for the last test. One story clarifying this custom relates that at first a white carnation was kept in a red inkpot between tests, so by the last test it was completely red; the story is remembered to start in the late 1990s.[25]

Carnations painted by Pierre-Joseph Redouté
Carnations are the customary first wedding commemoration flower.[26]

Images of regional elements and associations
The carnation is the public blossom of Spain, Monaco, and Slovenia, and the common bloom of the independent local area of the Balearic Islands. The state blossom of Ohio is a red carnation, which was acquainted with the state by Levi L. Lamborn. The decision was made to respect William McKinley, Ohio lead representative and U.S. president, who was killed in 1901, and routinely wore a red carnation on his lapel.[27]


The transgenic cultivar ‘Moondust’
Carnations don’t normally deliver the color delphinidin, consequently a blue carnation can’t happen by regular choice or be made by customary plant rearing. It imparts this trademark to other generally sold blossoms like roses, lilies, tulips, chrysanthemums and gerberas.

Around 1996, an organization, Florigene, utilized hereditary designing to remove specific qualities from petu

See also[edit]
List of Award of Garden Merit dianthus
^ Med-Checklist: Dianthus caryophyllus
^ Flora Europaea: Dianthus caryophyllus
^ Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
Jump up to:
a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
^ “What in Carnation?”, Wall Street Journal, Off Duty Section, 23–24 October 2010, p.D1
Jump up to:
a b Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, Marchant, J.R.V, & Charles, Joseph F., (Eds.), Revised Edition, 1928
^ Linnaeus, Carl (1753). “Tomus I”. Species Plantarum (in Latin). Vol. 1. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 410.
^ Flora of NW Europe: Dianthus caryophyllus Archived 8 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
^ “The Euro+Med Plantbase Project”.
^ Hans Wolfgang Behm: The flora around us. The colored book of flowers and flowers in gardens and house. Berlin 1966.
^ Onozaki, T., Ikeda, H., Yamaguchi, T., and Himeno, M. (1998). introduction of Bacterial Wilt (pseudomonas caryophylli) resistance in Dianthus wild species to carnation. In “ISHS Acta Horticulturae III: New Floricultural Crops”, Considine, J. eds, Acta Horticulturae, Perth, Western Australia. pp. 127–132
^ “Carnation Flower Meaning”.
^ Anthony S. Mercatante (1976), The magic garden: the myth and folklore of flowers, plants, trees, and herbs, Harper & Row, p. 9, ISBN 0-06-065562-3
^ “The legend of the carnation”, Library notes, Alabama Public Library Service, 1965, p. 6
^ “Symbolic Meaning of Carnation | Teleflora”.
^ “dianthus”. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online. 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
^ “Care Information for Standard Carnation”. Calyx Flowers Floral Library. Calyx & Corolla, Inc. 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
^ Leigh Eric Schmidt (1997). Princeton University Press (ed.). Consumer Rites: The Buying and Selling of American Holidays (reprint, illustrated ed.). p. 260. ISBN 0-691-01721-2.
^ Louisa Taylor, Canwest News Service (11 May 2008). “Mother’s Day creator likely ‘spinning in her grave'”. Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
^ “Mother’s Day reaches 100th anniversary, The woman who lobbied for this day would berate you for buying a card”. NBC News. Associated Press. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
^ “Annie’s “Mother’s Day” History Page”. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
^ Eaves, Gregory (13 May 2016). “Teacher’s Day”. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
^ Keith Flett (2002). “May Day”. Socialist Review. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
^ “The night on which even the carnation shed tears”. Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
^ “Why do students at Oxford University wear carnations to exams”. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
^ Wedding anniversary#Flower gifts
^ “Lawriter – ORC – 5.02 State flower”. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
^ Phys.Org website. 4 April 2005 Plant gene replacement results in the world’s only blue rose
^ “GM Carnations in Australia. A Resource Guide” (PDF). Agrifood Awareness Australia. November 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2012.