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Helianthus annuus
Sunflower sky backdrop.jpg
Agricultural assortment of normal sunflower
Preservation status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Logical classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Helianthus
Species: H. annuus
Binomial name
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus, the normal sunflower, is a huge yearly forb of the variety Helianthus developed as a harvest for its consumable oil and eatable organic products. This sunflower species is additionally utilized as wild bird food, as animals scrounge (as a feast or a silage plant), in a few modern applications, and as a fancy in homegrown nurseries. The plant was first tamed in quite a while. Wild Helianthus annuus is a generally spread yearly plant with many bloom heads. The homegrown sunflower, notwithstanding, regularly has just a solitary enormous inflorescence (blossom head) on an unbranched stem.

Sunflower seeds were brought to Europe from the Americas in the sixteenth century, where, alongside sunflower oil, they turned into an inescapable cooking fixing.

1 Description
2 Mathematical model of floret plan
3 Genome
4 Cultivation and employments
4.1 Cultivars
5 Heliotropism in Helianthus annuus
6 History
7 Culture
8 Other species
9 Sunflower half breeds
10 Threats and infections
11 See too
12 References
13 External connections

Head showing florets in twistings of 34 and 55 around the outside

Dust of Helianthus annuus
The plant has an erect unpleasant shaggy stem, arriving at average statures of 3 meters (9.8 ft). The tallest sunflower on record accomplished 9.17 meters (30.1 ft).[2] Sunflower leaves are expansive, coarsely toothed, harsh and for the most part substitute. What is frequently called the “bloom” of the sunflower is really a “blossom head” or pseudanthium of various little individual five-petaled blossoms (“florets”). The external blossoms, which take after petals, are called beam blossoms. Every “petal” comprises of a ligule made out of melded petals of a hilter kilter beam bloom. They are physically sterile and might be yellow, red, orange, or different shadings. The blossoms in the focal point of the head are called circle blossoms. These experienced into organic product (sunflower “seeds”). The circle blossoms are organized spirally. By and large, every floret is situated toward the following by around the brilliant point, 137.5°, creating an example of interconnecting twistings, where the quantity of left twistings and the quantity of right twistings are progressive Fibonacci numbers. Normally, there are 34 twistings in a single bearing and 55 in the other; notwithstanding, in an exceptionally enormous sunflower head there could be 89 out of one course and 144 in the other.[3][4][5] This example creates the most productive pressing of seeds numerically conceivable inside the bloom head.[6][7][8]

Most cultivars of sunflower are variations of Helianthus annuus, yet four different species (all perennials) are additionally trained. This incorporates H. tuberosus, the Jerusalem artichoke, which produces eatable tubers.

Numerical model of floret course of action

Representation of Vogel’s model for n=1 … 500

Detail of plate florets
A model for the example of florets in the top of a sunflower was proposed by H. Vogel in 1979.[9] This is communicated in polar directions

{\displaystyle r=c{\sqrt {n}},}{\displaystyle r=c{\sqrt {n}},}
{\displaystyle \theta =n\times 137.5^{\circ },}{\displaystyle \theta =n\times 137.5^{\circ },}
where θ is the point, r is the span or distance from the middle, and n is the list number of the floret and c is a steady scaling factor. It is a type of Fermat’s twisting. The point 137.5° is connected with the brilliant proportion (55/144 of a round point, where 55 and 144 are Fibonacci numbers) and gives a nearby pressing of florets. This model has been utilized to create PC designs portrayals of sunflowers.[10]

The sunflower, Helianthus annuus, genome is diploid with a base chromosome number of 17 and an expected genome size of 2871-3189 Mbp.[11][12] Some sources guarantee its actual size is around 3.5 billion base sets (marginally bigger than the human genome).[13]

Development and employments
To develop best, sunflowers need full sun. They fill best in prolific, soggy, all around depleted soil with weighty mulch. In business planting, seeds are established 45 cm (1.48 ft) separated and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) profound. Sunflower “entire seed” (organic product) are sold as a nibble food, crude or subsequent to simmering in broilers, with or without salt as well as flavors added. Sunflowers can be handled into a peanut butter elective, sunflower margarine. In Germany, it is blended in with rye flour to make Sonnenblumenkernbrot (in a real sense: sunflower entire seed bread), which is very well known in German-speaking Europe. It is likewise sold as nourishment for birds and can be utilized straightforwardly in cooking and mixed greens. Local Americans had various applications for sunflowers previously, for example, in bread, clinical salves, colors and body paints.[14]

Sunflower halva is famous in nations in Eastern Europe, including Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, and Ukraine just as different nations of the previous Soviet Union. It is made of sunflower seeds rather than sesame.

Sunflower oil, separated from the seeds, is utilized for cooking, as a transporter oil and to deliver margarine and biodiesel, as it is less expensive than olive oil. A scope of sunflower assortments exist with varying unsaturated fat creations; some “high-oleic” types contain a more significant level of monounsaturated fats in their oil than even olive oil. The oil is likewise now and then utilized in soap.[15]

The cake staying after the seeds have been handled for oil is utilized as an animals feed.[16] The frames coming about because of the dehulling of the seeds before oil extraction can likewise be taken care of to homegrown animals.[17] Some as of late evolved cultivars have hanging heads. These cultivars are less alluring to grounds-keepers developing the blossoms as decorative plants, yet appeal to ranchers, since they diminish bird harm and misfortunes from a few plant sicknesses. Sunflowers likewise produce plastic, and are the subject of examinations to work on their reasonableness as an elective harvest for creating hypoallergenic elastic.

Customarily, a few Native American gatherings established sunflowers on the north edges of their nurseries as a “fourth sister” to the better-known three sisters blend of corn, beans, and squash.[18] Annual species are frequently planted for their allelopathic properties.[19] It was likewise utilized by Native Americans to dress hair.[15]

Be that as it may, for business ranchers developing product crops other than sunflowers, the wild sunflower, similar to some other undesirable plant, is frequently viewed as a weed. Particularly in the Midwestern US, wild (lasting) species are regularly found in corn and soybean fields and can diminish yields. The decline in yield can be credited to the creation of phenolic intensifies which are utilized to diminish rivalry for supplements in supplement helpless developing region of the normal sunflower.[20]

Sunflowers can be utilized in phytoremediation to separate poisonous fixings from soil, like lead, arsenic and uranium, and utilized in rhizofiltration to kill radionuclides and other poisonous fixings and unsafe microscopic organisms from water. They were utilized to eliminate caesium-137 and strontium-90 from a close by lake after the Chernobyl disaster,[21] and a comparable mission was mounted because of the Fukushima Daiichi atomic disaster.[22][23]

Seed dehulled (left) and with body (right)

Close to Rietz-Neuendorf, Germany

Overall sunflower yield

Sunflowers are developed as ornamentals in a homegrown setting. Being not difficult to develop and delivering marvelous outcomes in any great, sodden soil in full sun, they are a most loved subject for youngsters. Countless cultivars, of changing size and shading, are currently accessible to develop from seed. Coming up next are cultivars of sunflowers (those checked agm have acquired the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit):- [24]

American Giant
Fall Beauty
Aztec Sun
Dark Oil
Chianti Hybrid
Claret agm[25]
Bantam Sunspot
Evening Sun
Goliath Primrose
Gullick’s Variety agm [26]
Indian Blanket Hybrid
Irish Eyes
Italian White
Kong Hybrid
Huge Gray Stripe
Lemon Queen agm[27]
Loddon Gold agm[28]
Mammoth Russian
Miss Mellish agm[29]
Ruler agm[30]
Mongolian Giant
Orange Sun
Pastiche agm[32]
Peach Passion
Prado Red
Red Sun
Ring of Fire
High rise
Sun powered Eclipse
Strawberry Blonde
Bright Hybrid
Sunsation Yellow [33]
Teddy Bear agm[34]
Thousand Suns
Valentine agm[35]
Velvet Queen
Yellow Disk

Prado Red

Mammoth Russian

Teddy Bear

Heliotropism in Helianthus annuus

Flowerheads pointing toward the east, away from the late evening Sun

Sunflowers not long before nightfall
A typical misinterpretation is that blooming sunflower heads track the Sun across the sky. Albeit juvenile bloom buds show this conduct, the full grown blossoming heads point in a fixed (and ordinarily easterly) course over the course of the day.[36][37] This old misguided judgment was questioned in 1597 by the English botanist John Gerard, who developed sunflowers in his renowned natural nursery: “[some] have revealed it to turn with the Sun, the which I would never notice, despite the fact that I have attempted to discover the reality of it.”[38] The uniform arrangement of sunflower heads in a field may send certain individuals the mixed signal that the blossoms are following the Sun.

This arrangement results from heliotropism in a prior advancement stage, the youthful bloom stage, before complete development of blossom heads (anthesis).[39] Young sunflowers situate themselves toward the sun. At first light the top of the blossom points toward the east and moves west over the course of the day. At the point when sunflowers arrive at complete development they no longer foll

See also[edit]
List of sunflower diseases
^ “Helianthus annuus”. The Global Compositae Checklist (GCC) – via The Plant List.
^ “Tallest Sunflower”. Guinness World Records. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
^ Adam, John A. (2003). John A. Adam, Mathematics in Nature. ISBN 978-0-691-11429-3. Retrieved 2011-01-31 – via Google Books.
^ “R. Knott, Interactive demos”. 2009-02-12. Archived from the original on 2009-09-16. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
^ “R. Knott, Fibonacci in plants”. 2010-10-30. Archived from the original on 2009-09-07. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
^ Motloch, John L (2000-08-25). Introduction to landscape design – Google Books. ISBN 978-0-471-35291-4. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
^ Jean, Roger V (1994). Phyllotaxis. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-521-40482-2. Retrieved 2011-01-31. fibonacci packing efficiency.
^ “Parastichy pair(13:21) of CYCAS REVOLUTA (male) florets_WebCite”. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009.
^ Vogel, H (1979). “A better way to construct the sunflower head”. Mathematical Biosciences. 44 (3–4): 179–189. doi:10.1016/0025-5564(79)90080-4.
^ Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Lindenmayer, Aristid (1990). The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. Springer-Verlag. pp. 101–107. ISBN 978-0-387-97297-8.
^ “Helianthus annuus (common sunflower) Genome Project”. NCBI. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
^ “Helianthus annuus”. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
^ “Sunflower Genome Holds the Promise of Sustainable Agriculture”. ScienceDaily. 2010-01-14.
^ Pelczar, Rita. (1993) The Prodigal Sunflower. American Horticulturist 72(8).
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a b c Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 384. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2016. Sunflower meal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO.
^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2018. Sunflower hulls and sunflower screenings. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO.
^ Kuepper and Dodson (2001) Companion Planting: Basic Concept and Resources Archived 2008-05-24 at the Wayback Machine
^ Nikneshan, P., Karimmojeni, P., Moghanibashi, M., Hosseini, N. (2011) Australian Journal of Crop Science. 5(11):1434-40. ISSN 1835-2707. Allelopathic potential of sunflower on weed management in safflower and wheat
^ Irons, Stephen M.; Burnside, Orvin C. (1982). “Competitive and Allelopathic Effects of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)”. Weed Science. 30 (4): 372–377. doi:10.1017/S0043174500040789. ISSN 0043-1745. JSTOR 4043628.
^ Adler, Tina (July 20, 1996). “Botanical cleanup crews: using plants to tackle polluted water and soil”. Science News. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
^ AFP (June 24, 2011). “Sunflowers to clean radioactive soil in Japan”. Yahoo News. Retrieved 2011-06-25.[permanent dead link]
^ Antoni Slodkowski; Yuriko Nakao (19 August 2011). “Sunflowers melt Fukushima’s nuclear “snow””. Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
^ “AGM Plants – Ornamental” (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 43. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
^ “Helianthus annuus ‘Claret'”. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
^ “Helianthus ‘Gullick’s Variety'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus ‘Lemon Queen'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus ‘Loddon Gold'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus ‘Miss Mellish'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus ‘Monarch'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus annuus ‘Munchkin'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus annuus ‘Pastiche'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus annuus ‘Sunsation Yellow'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus annuus ‘Teddy Bear'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Helianthus annuus ‘Valentine'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
^ “Many people are under the misconception that the flower heads of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) track the sun… Immature sunflower flower heads do exhibit solar tracking and on sunny days the buds will track the sun across the sky from east to west… However, as the flower bud matures and blossoms, the stem stiffens and the flower head becomes fixed facing the eastward direction.” Hangarter, Roger P. “Solar tracking: sunflower plants”. Plants-In-Motion website. Indiana University. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
^ “Sunflowers in the blooming stage are not heliotropic anymore. The stem has frozen, typically in an eastward orientation”. Archived from the original on 2013-05-23.
^ Gerard, John (1597). Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. London: John Norton. pp. 612–614. Retrieved 2012-08-08. Popular botany book in 17th century England
^ “Sunflower, Developmental stages (life cycle)”. GeoChemBio website. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
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a b c d Atamian, Hagop S.; Creux, Nicky M.; Brown, Evan A.; Garner, Austin G.; Blackman, Benjamin K.; Harmer, Stacey L. (2016-08-05). “Circadian regulation of sunflower heliotropism, floral orientation, and pollinator visits”. Science. 353 (6299): 587–590. Bibcode:2016Sci…353..587A. doi:10.1126/science.aaf9793. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 27493185.
^ Donat-Peter Häder; Michael Lebert (2001). Photomovement. Elsevier. pp. 673–. ISBN 978-0-444-50706-8. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
^ Blackman et al. (2011). [1]. PNAS.
^ Lentz et al. (2008). PNAS.
^ Rieseberg, Loren H., et al. (2004). Origin of Extant Domesticated Sunflowers in Eastern North America. Nature 430.6996. 201-205.
^ Henderson & Pollack (2012). [2].
^ Putt, E.D. (1997). “Early history of sunflower”. In A.A. Schneiter (ed.). Sunflower Technology and Production. Agronomy Series. Vol. 35. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy. pp. 1–19.
^ Smith (2006). [3]. PNAS.
^ SUNFLOWERS: The Secret History. (2007). Kirkus Reviews 75.23:1236. Academic Search Complete. Web. 17 November 2012.
^ Camazine, Scott and Robert A. Bye (1980) A Study Of The Medical Ethnobotany Of The Zuni Indians of New Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2:365-388 (p.375)
^ Stevenson, Matilda Coxe (1915) Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 (p.53-54)
^ Stevenson, p.93
^ Awtry-Smith, Marilyn J. The Symbol of Spiritualism: The Sunflower. Reprinted from the New Educational Course on Modern Spiritualism. Appendix IV in Talking to the Other Side: A History of Modern Spiritualism and Mediumship, ed. by Todd Jay Leonard. ISBN 0-595-36353-9.
^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
^ “Dutch town hard hit by MH17 disaster remembers victims with sunflowers”. The Guardian. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
^ “Planting hope”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
^ “Kimberly Jiménez parades in the typical sunflower costume at the Miss Universe pre-message gala”. 13 May 2021.
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a b Gontcharov, SV. Antonova, TS. and Saukova, SL. 2006. Sunflower breeding for resistance to fusarium. Helia [accessed September 14, 2014]; 29 (45): 49-54.
^ Martin, Cinthia Susic; Farina, Walter M. (2016-03-01). “Honeybee floral constancy and pollination efficiency in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crops for hybrid seed production”. Apidologie. 47 (2): 161–170. doi:10.1007/s13592-015-0384-8. ISSN 0044-8435.
^ Encheva, J. Christov, M and Shindrova, P. Developing Mutant Sunflower Line (Helianthus Annuus L.) By Combined Used Of Classical Method With Induced Mutagenesis and Embryo Culture Method. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science [accessed October 15, 2014]; 14(4):397-404