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Viola reichenbachiana LC0128.jpg
Viola reichenbachiana
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Violaceae
Subfamily: Violoideae
Tribe: Violeae
Genus: Viola
Type species
Viola odorata
see Subdivision

Viola is a sort of blossoming plants in the violet family Violaceae. It is the biggest sort in the family, containing somewhere in the range of 525 and 600 species. Most species are found in the calm Northern Hemisphere; in any case, some are additionally found in broadly disparate regions like Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes.

A few Viola animal varieties are perpetual plants, some are yearly plants, and a couple are little bushes. Numerous species, assortments and cultivars are filled in gardens for their elaborate blossoms. In agriculture the term pansy is typically utilized for those multi-hued, enormous blossomed cultivars which are raised every year or biennially from seed and utilized broadly in sheet material. The terms viola and violet are ordinarily held for little blossomed annuals or perennials, including the wild species.

1 Description
1.1 Phytochemistry
2 Taxonomy
2.1 History
2.2 Phylogeny
2.3 Subdivision
2.4 Evolution and biogeography
2.5 Genetics
3 Distribution and environment
4 Ecology
5 Horticultural employments
5.1 Species and cultivars
5.2 Bedding plants
5.3 Perennial cultivars
6 Other employments
6.1 Culinary
6.2 Medicinal
6.3 Perfume
7 Cultural affiliations
7.1 Birth
7.2 Geographical domains
7.3 Lesbian and sexually open culture
7.4 Tributes
8 See too
9 Notes
10 References
11 Bibliography
11.1 Books
11.2 Articles
11.3 Websites

Opened seed case of Viola arvensis (field pansy, Melanium), showing the seeds
Yearly or perpetual caulescent or acaulescent (with or without an apparent plant stem over the ground) spices, bushes or seldom treelets. In acaulescent taxa the foliage and blossoms seem to ascend from the beginning. The rest of short stems with foliage and blossoms created in the axils of the leaves (axillary).[1]

Viola commonly have heart-formed or reniform (kidney-molded), scalloped leaves, however a number have direct or palmate leaves.[1] The straightforward leaves of plants with either propensity are organized then again; the acaulescent species produce basal rosettes. Plants generally have leaves with stipules that are frequently leaf-like.

The blossoms of by far most of the species are firmly zygomorphic with respective balance and lone, yet incidentally structure cymes. The blossoms are framed from five petals; four are upswept or fan-formed with two for each side, and there is one, wide, lobed lower petal pointing lower. This petal might be marginally or a lot more limited than the others and is feebly separated. The state of the petals and arrangement characterizes numerous species, for instance, a few animal categories have a “spike” on the finish of every petal while most have a prod on the lower petal. The spike might differ from hardly exserted (anticipating) to extremely long, for example, in Viola rostrata.[1]

Singular blossoms end long stalks with a couple of bracteoles. The blossoms have five sepals that persevere in the wake of sprouting, and in certain species the sepals extend subsequent to sprouting. The corolla goes from white to yellow, orange or different shades of blue and violet or diverse, frequently blue and yellow, with or without a yellow throat.[1]

The blossoms have five free stamens with short free fibers that are abused against the ovary, with a dorsal connective extremity that is huge, whole and elongated to praise. Just the lower two stamens are calcarate (having nectary spikes that are embedded on the least petal into the prod or a pocket). The styles are filiform (threadlike) or clavate (clubshaped), thickened at their tip, being globose to rostellate (curved). The marks of disgrace are head-like, limited or frequently bent. The blossoms have an unrivaled ovary with one cell, which has three placentae, containing numerous ovules.[1]

Subsequent to blooming, organic product containers are delivered that are thick walled, with not many to many seeds per carpel, and dehisce (split open) via three valves.[2] On drying, the cases might discharge seeds with impressive power to distances of a few meters.[3] The nutlike seeds, which are obovoid to globose, are normally arillate (with a particular outgrowth) and have straight incipient organisms, level cotyledons, and delicate plump endosperm that is oily.[4][1]

One attribute of some Viola is the subtle fragrance of their blossoms; alongside terpenes, a significant part of the aroma is a ketone compound called ionone, which briefly desensitizes the receptors of the nose, in this manner forestalling any further aroma being recognized from the bloom until the nerves recover.[5]

Scientific categorization
First page of Linnaeus’ 1753 portrayal of Viola
Linnaeus’ unique portrayal (1753)
First officially depicted via Carl Linnaeus in 1753[6] with 19 species, the class Viola bears his organic power, L.[7] When Jussieu set up the progressive arrangement of families (1789), he set Viola in the Cisti (rock roses),[8] however by 1811 he recommended Viola be isolated from these.[9] However, in 1802 Batsch had effectively settled a different family, which he called Violariae in light of Viola as the kind variety, with seven other genera.[10][11] Although Violariae kept on being utilized by certain creators, for example, Bentham and Hooker in 1862 (as Violarieae),[12] most creators took on the elective name Violaceae, first proposed by de Lamarck and de Candolle in 1805,[13] and Gingins (1823)[14] and Saint-Hilaire (1824).[15]However de Candolle likewise involved Violarieae in his 1824 Prodromus.[16]

Viola is one of around 25 genera and around 600 species in the enormous eudicot family Violaceae, separated into subfamilies and clans. While most genera are monotypic, Viola is an extremely huge variety, differently surrounded as having somewhere in the range of 500 and 600 species. Generally it was put in subfamily Violoideae, clan Violeae. Yet, these divisions have been demonstrated to be fake and not monophyletic. Sub-atomic phylogenetic investigations show that Viola happens in Clade I of the family, as Viola, Schweiggeria, Noisettia and Allexis, in which Schweiggeria and Noisettia are monotypic and structure a sister gathering to Viola.[17][18][19]

Viola is a huge variety, that has generally been treated in sections.[18] One of these was that of Gingins (1823),[14] in light of shame morphology, with five areas (Nomimium, Dischidium, Chamaemelanium, Melanium, Leptidium).[20] The broad ordered investigations of Wilhelm Becker, finishing in his 1925 summary, brought about 14 segments and numerous infrasectional gatherings. The biggest and generally different, being area Viola, with 17 subsections. Notwithstanding subsections, series were likewise described.[21] Alternatively, a few creators have liked to partition the sort into subgenera. Resulting medicines were by Gershoy (1934)[22] and Clausen (1964),[23] utilizing subsections and series. These were completely founded on morphological qualities. Resulting concentrates on utilizing atomic phylogenetic techniques, for example, that of Ballard et al. (1998) have shown that a large number of these customary divisions are not monophyletic, the issue being connected with a serious level of hybridization. Specifically area Nomimium was dissected into a few new areas and moving piece of it to segment Viola. Area Viola s. lat. is addressed by four areas, Viola sensu stricto, Plagiostigma s. str., Nosphinium sensu lato. what’s more the V. spathulata bunch. In that examination, the S American segments have all the earmarks of being the basal gatherings, beginning with Rubellium, then, at that point, Leptidium. Notwithstanding, the specific phylogenetic connections stay unsettled, as an outcome a wide range of ordered classifications are being used, including groupings alluded to as Grex.[19] Marcussen et al. place the five S American segments, Andinium, Leptidium, Tridens, Rubellium and Chilenium at the foundation of the phylogenetic tree, in a specific order. These are trailed by the single Australian segment, Erpetion, as sister gathering to Chilenium, the northern side of the equator segments lastly the single African segment, V. abyssinica. These segments are morphologically, chromosomally, and geologically distinct.[24][25][26]

Seventeen areas are perceived, recorded in order (inexact no. species);[27][24][28]

Order. Andinium W.Becker (113) S America[28]
Order. Chamaemelanium Ging. (61) N America, upper east Asia (incorporates Dischidium, Orbiculares)
Subsect. Chamaemelanium
Subsect. Nudicaules
Subsect. Nuttalianae
Order. Chilenium W.Becker (8) southern S America[29]
Order. Danxiaviola W. B. Liao et Q. Fan (1) China[25]
Order. Delphiniopsis W.Becker (3) western Eurasia: southern Spain; Balkans[30]
Order. Erpetion (Banks) W.Becker (11-18) eastern Australia; Tasmania
Order. Leptidium Ging. (19) S America[31]
Order. Melanium Ging. (125) western Eurasia (pansies)[18][32]
Order. Nosphinium W.Becker (31-50) N, C and northern S America; Beringia; Hawaii[27]
Order. nov. A (V. abyssinica bunch) (1-3) Africa: tropical high mountains
Order. nov. B (V. spathulata bunch) (7-9) western and focal Asia: northern Iraq to Mongolia[25]
Order. Plagiostigma Godr. (120) northern half of the globe (incorporates Diffusae)[33][34][35]
Grex Primulifolia
Order. Rubellium W.Becker (3-6) S America: Chile[19]
Order. Sclerosium W.Becker (1-4) northeastern Africa to southwestern Asia[36]
Order. Tridens W.Becker (2) southern S America
Order. Viola  s.str. (Rostellatae nom. illeg.) (75) northern half of the globe (violets) (incorporates Repentes)[26]
Subsect. Rostratae Kupffer (W.Becker) [37]
Subsect. Viola
Order. Xylinosium W.Becker (3-4) Mediterranean district
The variety incorporates canine violets, a gathering of scentless animal types which are the most well-known

See also[edit]
Rosalia (festival), a festival of roses which sometimes involved violas
^ V. papilionacea is considered a synonym of V. sororia
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a b c d e f g Ballard et al 2013.
^ Cullen 2001, p. 345.
^ Rendle 1925, p. 208.
^ Cronquist 1981.
^ Maxwell 2017.
^ Linnaeus 1753.
^ WFO 2019.
^ Jussieu 1789.
^ Lindley 1853.
^ Batsch 1802.
^ IPNI 2020.
^ Bentham & Hooker 1862.
^ de Lamarck & de Candolle 1815.
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a b Gingins 1823.
^ Saint-Hilaire 1824.
^ Candolle 1824.
^ Wahlert et al 2014.
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a b c d e f Yockteng et al 2003.
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a b c d Ballard et al 1998.
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a b Yoo & Jang 2010.
^ Becker 1925.
^ Gershoy 1934.
^ Clausen 1964.
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a b Marcussen et al 2015.
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a b c Fan et al 2015.
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a b Malobecki et al 2016.
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a b Marcussen et al 2012.
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a b Watson et al 2019.
^ BioLib 2019.
^ CSIC 2020.
^ Freitas & Sosa 2002.
^ Magrini & Scoppola 2015.
^ Ning 2012.
^ Zhou 2008.
^ Tikhomirov 2015.
^ Shahrestani et al 2014.
^ Danihelka 2010.
^ Gonzáles & Cano 2016.
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a b c Ballard & Iltis 2012.
^ Watson & Flores 2003.
^ Whang 2002.
^ Thiele & Prober 2003.
^ Chervin et al 2019.
^ V capillaris 2020.
^ Watson & Watson 2012.
^ Łańcucka-Środoniowa 1979.
^ Culley et al 2007.
^ Culley & Grubb 2003.
^ Batista & Sosa 2002.
^ Culley & Klooster 2007.
^ Kopper et al 2000.
^ Beattie 1971.
^ Lord 1981.
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a b c Beattie & Lyons 1975.
^ Culver & Beattie 1978.
^ Baskin & Baskin 1972.
^ Elisafenko 2015.
^ Shuey et al 2016.
^ Hildebrandt et al 1999.
^ Walters & Keil 1996, p. 332.
^ VC 2020.
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a b c AVS 2007.
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a b c RHS 2009.
^ RHS Little David 2020.
^ RHS Konigin Charlotte 2020.
^ Armitage 2008.
^ Wittrock 1892–1897a.
^ Wittrock 1892–1897.
^ Kelly et al 2007.
^ RHS 2018.
^ “RHS Plant Selector Viola ‘Aspasia'”. RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
^ “RHS Plant Selector Viola ‘Clementina'”. RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
^ “RHS Plant Selector Viola ‘Huntercombe Purple'”. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
^ “Viola ‘Jackanapes'”. RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
^ “Viola ‘Molly Sanderson'”. RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
^ “RHS Plant Selector Viola ‘Moonlight'”. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
^ “RHS Plant Selector Viola ‘Nellie Britton'”. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
^ RHS Plant Finder 2008-2009, Dorling Kindersley (2008) ISBN 978-1-4053-3190-6 pp787–791
^ Whittaker, Debbie. “Cooking and Decorating With Violets”. The Culinary Violet. The American Violet Society. Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
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a b Davidson 2014.
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a b Robuchon 1997.
^ Zhang, J.; et al. (2011). “Rapid separation and identification of anthocyanins from flowers of Viola yedoensis and V. prionantha by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry”. Phytochemical Analysis. 23 (1): 16–22. doi:10.1002/pca.1320. PMID 21523841.
^ Tang, J.; et al. (2010). “Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor” (PDF). Peptides. 31 (8): 1434–40. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.05.004. PMID 20580652. S2CID 33157266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-03.
^ Trabi, M.; et al. (2009). “Circular proteins from Melicytus (Violaceae) refine the conserved protein and gene architecture of cyclotides”. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. 7 (11): 2378–88. doi:10.1039/b823020j. PMID 19462049.
^ Gerlach, S. L.; et al. (2010). “Isolation, characterization, and bioactivity of cyclotides from the Micronesian plant Psychotria leptothyrsa”. Journal of Natural Products. 73 (7): 1207–13. doi:10.1021/np9007365. PMID 20575512.
^ Craik, David J. (2010). “Discovery and applications of the plant cyclotides”. Toxicon. 56 (7): 1092–1102. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.02.021. PMID 20219513.
^ Dua, VK; Verma, G; Agarwal, DD; Kaiser, M; Brun, R (Apr 2011). “Antiprotozoal activities of traditional medicinal plants from the Garhwal region of North West Himalaya, India”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 136 (1): 123–128. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.024. PMID 21527328.
^ Qasemzadeh, MJ; Sharifi, H; Hamedanian, M; Gharehbeglou, M; Heydari, M; Sardari, M; Akhlaghdoust, M; Minae, MB (Oct 2015). “The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial”. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 20 (4): 287–91. doi:10.1177/2156587215584862. PMID 25954025.
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a b Staff, Thomson P.D.R (2004-01-01). PDR for Herbal Medicines. ISBN 9781563635120. Archived from the original on 2015-11-30.
^ Klövekorn, W; Tepe, A; Danesch, U (Nov 2007). “A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis”. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 45 (11): 583–91. doi:10.5414/CPP45583. PMID 18077922.
^ Ackerman, Diane. A natural history of the senses. New York: Vintage Books, 1991. Print.
^ Almanac, Old Farmer’s. “Birth Month Flowers and Their Meanings”.
^ “State Symbols”. State of Illinois.
^ “Rhode Island State Flower – Violet”.
^ “New Jersey State Flower – Violet”.
^ “Wisconsin State Symbols”. State of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
^ “Wisconsin State Flower – Wood Violet”. Rhode Island and Illinois.
^ “New Brunswick”. Government of Canada. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2015-07-18.
^ “Dog-violet (Common)”. Plantlife.
^ Myers, JoAnne (2003). The A to Z of the Lesbian Liberation Movement: Still the Rage (The A to Z Guide Series, No. 73 ) (1st ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8108-6811-3.
^ “Gay Symbols Through the Ages”. The Alyson Almanac: A Treasury of Information for the Gay and Lesbian Community. Boston, Massachusetts: Alyson Publications. 1989. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-932870-19-3.
^ Collecott, Diana (1999). H.D. and Sapphic Modernism 1910-1950 (1st ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-521-55078-9.
^ Barnard, Mary (1958). Sappho: A New Translation (1st ed.). University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780520223127. LCCN 58006520.
^ Cohen-Stratyner, Barbara (January 14, 2014). “Violets and Vandamm”. New York Public Library. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
^ Sova, Dawn B. (2004). Banned Plays: Censorship Histories of 125 Stage Dramas (1st ed.). Facts On File. pp. 37–40. ISBN 978-0-8160-4018-6.
^ NMA Collections Search Archived 2014-05-31 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of Australia (2003-2010) – Violet Day 1917 fundraising badge
^ Gracie, Carol (2012), Spring Wildflowers of the Northeast: A Natural History, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 221, ISBN 978-0691144665
^ Family History South Australia Archived 2013-11-09 at the Wayback Machine Leadbeater, B (2006). World War 1 Violet Day South Australia.
^ “Violet Day, Press, 3 September 1914, p.8, col. 8” (Newspaper). The National Library of New Zealand. 3 September 1914. p. 8. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2015.