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Viola
Viola reichenbachiana LC0128.jpg
Viola reichenbachiana
Logical classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Violaceae
Subfamily: Violoideae
Tribe: Violeae
Genus: Viola
L.
Type species
Viola odorata
L.
Areas
see Subdivision

Viola is a sort of blossoming plants in the violet family Violaceae. It is the biggest sort in the family, containing somewhere in the range of 525 and 600 species. Most species are found in the calm Northern Hemisphere; in any case, some are additionally found in broadly disparate regions like Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes.

A few Viola animal varieties are perpetual plants, some are yearly plants, and a couple are little bushes. Numerous species, assortments and cultivars are filled in gardens for their elaborate blossoms. In agriculture the term pansy is typically utilized for those multi-hued, enormous blossomed cultivars which are raised every year or biennially from seed and utilized broadly in sheet material. The terms viola and violet are ordinarily held for little blossomed annuals or perennials, including the wild species.

Substance
1 Description
1.1 Phytochemistry
2 Taxonomy
2.1 History
2.2 Phylogeny
2.3 Subdivision
2.4 Evolution and biogeography
2.5 Genetics
3 Distribution and environment
4 Ecology
5 Horticultural employments
5.1 Species and cultivars
5.2 Bedding plants
5.3 Perennial cultivars
6 Other employments
6.1 Culinary
6.2 Medicinal
6.3 Perfume
7 Cultural affiliations
7.1 Birth
7.2 Geographical domains
7.3 Lesbian and sexually open culture
7.4 Tributes
8 See too
9 Notes
10 References
11 Bibliography
11.1 Books
11.2 Articles
11.3 Websites
Portrayal

Opened seed case of Viola arvensis (field pansy, Melanium), showing the seeds
Yearly or perpetual caulescent or acaulescent (with or without an apparent plant stem over the ground) spices, bushes or seldom treelets. In acaulescent taxa the foliage and blossoms seem to ascend from the beginning. The rest of short stems with foliage and blossoms created in the axils of the leaves (axillary).[1]

Viola commonly have heart-formed or reniform (kidney-molded), scalloped leaves, however a number have direct or palmate leaves.[1] The straightforward leaves of plants with either propensity are organized then again; the acaulescent species produce basal rosettes. Plants generally have leaves with stipules that are frequently leaf-like.

The blossoms of by far most of the species are firmly zygomorphic with respective balance and lone, yet incidentally structure cymes. The blossoms are framed from five petals; four are upswept or fan-formed with two for each side, and there is one, wide, lobed lower petal pointing lower. This petal might be marginally or a lot more limited than the others and is feebly separated. The state of the petals and arrangement characterizes numerous species, for instance, a few animal categories have a “spike” on the finish of every petal while most have a prod on the lower petal. The spike might differ from hardly exserted (anticipating) to extremely long, for example, in Viola rostrata.[1]

Singular blossoms end long stalks with a couple of bracteoles. The blossoms have five sepals that persevere in the wake of sprouting, and in certain species the sepals extend subsequent to sprouting. The corolla goes from white to yellow, orange or different shades of blue and violet or diverse, frequently blue and yellow, with or without a yellow throat.[1]

The blossoms have five free stamens with short free fibers that are abused against the ovary, with a dorsal connective extremity that is huge, whole and elongated to praise. Just the lower two stamens are calcarate (having nectary spikes that are embedded on the least petal into the prod or a pocket). The styles are filiform (threadlike) or clavate (clubshaped), thickened at their tip, being globose to rostellate (curved). The marks of disgrace are head-like, limited or frequently bent. The blossoms have an unrivaled ovary with one cell, which has three placentae, containing numerous ovules.[1]

Subsequent to blooming, organic product containers are delivered that are thick walled, with not many to many seeds per carpel, and dehisce (split open) via three valves.[2] On drying, the cases might discharge seeds with impressive power to distances of a few meters.[3] The nutlike seeds, which are obovoid to globose, are normally arillate (with a particular outgrowth) and have straight incipient organisms, level cotyledons, and delicate plump endosperm that is oily.[4][1]

Phytochemistry
One attribute of some Viola is the subtle fragrance of their blossoms; alongside terpenes, a significant part of the aroma is a ketone compound called ionone, which briefly desensitizes the receptors of the nose, in this manner forestalling any further aroma being recognized from the bloom until the nerves recover.[5]

Scientific categorization
First page of Linnaeus’ 1753 portrayal of Viola
Linnaeus’ unique portrayal (1753)
History
First officially depicted via Carl Linnaeus in 1753[6] with 19 species, the class Viola bears his organic power, L.[7] When Jussieu set up the progressive arrangement of families (1789), he set Viola in the Cisti (rock roses),[8] however by 1811 he recommended Viola be isolated from these.[9] However, in 1802 Batsch had effectively settled a different family, which he called Violariae in light of Viola as the kind variety, with seven other genera.[10][11] Although Violariae kept on being utilized by certain creators, for example, Bentham and Hooker in 1862 (as Violarieae),[12] most creators took on the elective name Violaceae, first proposed by de Lamarck and de Candolle in 1805,[13] and Gingins (1823)[14] and Saint-Hilaire (1824).[15]However de Candolle likewise involved Violarieae in his 1824 Prodromus.[16]

Phylogeny
Viola is one of around 25 genera and around 600 species in the enormous eudicot family Violaceae, separated into subfamilies and clans. While most genera are monotypic, Viola is an extremely huge variety, differently surrounded as having somewhere in the range of 500 and 600 species. Generally it was put in subfamily Violoideae, clan Violeae. Yet, these divisions have been demonstrated to be fake and not monophyletic. Sub-atomic phylogenetic investigations show that Viola happens in Clade I of the family, as Viola, Schweiggeria, Noisettia and Allexis, in which Schweiggeria and Noisettia are monotypic and structure a sister gathering to Viola.[17][18][19]

Development
Viola is a huge variety, that has generally been treated in sections.[18] One of these was that of Gingins (1823),[14] in light of shame morphology, with five areas (Nomimium, Dischidium, Chamaemelanium, Melanium, Leptidium).[20] The broad ordered investigations of Wilhelm Becker, finishing in his 1925 summary, brought about 14 segments and numerous infrasectional gatherings. The biggest and generally different, being area Viola, with 17 subsections. Notwithstanding subsections, series were likewise described.[21] Alternatively, a few creators have liked to partition the sort into subgenera. Resulting medicines were by Gershoy (1934)[22] and Clausen (1964),[23] utilizing subsections and series. These were completely founded on morphological qualities. Resulting concentrates on utilizing atomic phylogenetic techniques, for example, that of Ballard et al. (1998) have shown that a large number of these customary divisions are not monophyletic, the issue being connected with a serious level of hybridization. Specifically area Nomimium was dissected into a few new areas and moving piece of it to segment Viola. Area Viola s. lat. is addressed by four areas, Viola sensu stricto, Plagiostigma s. str., Nosphinium sensu lato. what’s more the V. spathulata bunch. In that examination, the S American segments have all the earmarks of being the basal gatherings, beginning with Rubellium, then, at that point, Leptidium. Notwithstanding, the specific phylogenetic connections stay unsettled, as an outcome a wide range of ordered classifications are being used, including groupings alluded to as Grex.[19] Marcussen et al. place the five S American segments, Andinium, Leptidium, Tridens, Rubellium and Chilenium at the foundation of the phylogenetic tree, in a specific order. These are trailed by the single Australian segment, Erpetion, as sister gathering to Chilenium, the northern side of the equator segments lastly the single African segment, V. abyssinica. These segments are morphologically, chromosomally, and geologically distinct.[24][25][26]

Areas
Seventeen areas are perceived, recorded in order (inexact no. species);[27][24][28]

Order. Andinium W.Becker (113) S America[28]
Order. Chamaemelanium Ging. s.lat. (61) N America, upper east Asia (incorporates Dischidium, Orbiculares)
Subsect. Chamaemelanium
Subsect. Nudicaules
Subsect. Nuttalianae
Order. Chilenium W.Becker (8) southern S America[29]
Order. Danxiaviola W. B. Liao et Q. Fan (1) China[25]
Order. Delphiniopsis W.Becker (3) western Eurasia: southern Spain; Balkans[30]
Order. Erpetion (Banks) W.Becker (11-18) eastern Australia; Tasmania
Order. Leptidium Ging. (19) S America[31]
Order. Melanium Ging. (125) western Eurasia (pansies)[18][32]
Order. Nosphinium W.Becker s.lat. (31-50) N, C and northern S America; Beringia; Hawaii[27]
Order. nov. A (V. abyssinica bunch) (1-3) Africa: tropical high mountains
Order. nov. B (V. spathulata bunch) (7-9) western and focal Asia: northern Iraq to Mongolia[25]
Order. Plagiostigma Godr. (120) northern half of the globe (incorporates Diffusae)[33][34][35]
Grex Primulifolia
Order. Rubellium W.Becker (3-6) S America: Chile[19]
Order. Sclerosium W.Becker (1-4) northeastern Africa to southwestern Asia[36]
Order. Tridens W.Becker (2) southern S America
Order. Viola  s.str. (Rostellatae nom. illeg.) (75) northern half of the globe (violets) (incorporates Repentes)[26]
Subsect. Rostratae Kupffer (W.Becker) [37]
Subsect. Viola
Order. Xylinosium W.Becker (3-4) Mediterranean district
Species
The variety incorporates canine violets, a gathering of scentless animal types which are the most well-known

See also[edit]
Rosalia (festival), a festival of roses which sometimes involved violas
Pansy
Notes[edit]
^ V. papilionacea is considered a synonym of V. sororia
References[edit]
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^ Lindley 1853.
^ Batsch 1802.
^ IPNI 2020.
^ Bentham & Hooker 1862.
^ de Lamarck & de Candolle 1815.
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a b Gingins 1823.
^ Saint-Hilaire 1824.
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^ Wahlert et al 2014.
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^ Clausen 1964.
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^ Tang, J.; et al. (2010). “Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor” (PDF). Peptides. 31 (8): 1434–40. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.05.004. PMID 20580652. S2CID 33157266. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-03.
^ Trabi, M.; et al. (2009). “Circular proteins from Melicytus (Violaceae) refine the conserved protein and gene architecture of cyclotides”. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. 7 (11): 2378–88. doi:10.1039/b823020j. PMID 19462049.
^ Gerlach, S. L.; et al. (2010). “Isolation, characterization, and bioactivity of cyclotides from the Micronesian plant Psychotria leptothyrsa”. Journal of Natural Products. 73 (7): 1207–13. doi:10.1021/np9007365. PMID 20575512.
^ Craik, David J. (2010). “Discovery and applications of the plant cyclotides”. Toxicon. 56 (7): 1092–1102. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.02.021. PMID 20219513.
^ Dua, VK; Verma, G; Agarwal, DD; Kaiser, M; Brun, R (Apr 2011). “Antiprotozoal activities of traditional medicinal plants from the Garhwal region of North West Himalaya, India”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 136 (1): 123–128. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.024. PMID 21527328.
^ Qasemzadeh, MJ; Sharifi, H; Hamedanian, M; Gharehbeglou, M; Heydari, M; Sardari, M; Akhlaghdoust, M; Minae, MB (Oct 2015). “The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial”. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 20 (4): 287–91. doi:10.1177/2156587215584862. PMID 25954025.
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^ Ackerman, Diane. A natural history of the senses. New York: Vintage Books, 1991. Print.
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^ “New Jersey State Flower – Violet”. statesymbolsusa.org.
^ “Wisconsin State Symbols”. State of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
^ “Wisconsin State Flower – Wood Violet”. statesymbolsusa.org. Rhode Island and Illinois.
^ “New Brunswick”. Government of Canada. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2015-07-18.
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^ Myers, JoAnne (2003). The A to Z of the Lesbian Liberation Movement: Still the Rage (The A to Z Guide Series, No. 73 ) (1st ed.). Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8108-6811-3.
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